Knowledge Transfer

By Yogesh Malhotra
“The best information environments will
take advantage of the ability of IT to
overcome geography but will also
acknowledge that the highest bandwidth
network of all is found between the water
fountain and the coffee machine.”
The Three Components of Knowledge Management:

• Knowledge generation.
Includes all activities, which brings to light knowledge
that is “new” to the individual, to the group, and to
the organization.

• Knowledge codification.
Representation of knowledge so that it can be “reused”
either by an individual or an organization.

• Knowledge transfer.
“Movement of knowledge from one location to
Means of Knowledge Transfer
􀂃 Knowledge Fairs – E&Y, CSIRO
􀂃 Unstructured, Ad Hoc
􀂃 versus Structured, Micro-Planned Conferences
􀂃 Japanese Talk Rooms
􀂃 Knowledge Markets – Any organization that exchanges for other things of value – money, respect,promotions, or knowledge
􀂃 Communities of Practice – knowledge flows best through networks of people with similar interest
Tacit: Knowledge not easy to visualize and express. Highly personal and hard to formalize.

Explicit: Can be expressed in words and numbers and can easily be communicated and shared in the form of hard data.
Knowledge conversion: Tacit and Explicit knowledge interact and interchange into each other in the creative activities of human beings. Knowledge is created through social interaction of the two types of knowledge!
Tacit and Explicit Knowledge
Tacit Knowledge

– Embedded in the human brain
– Cannot be expressed easily
– Requires extensive personal contact
– Mentorship networks
– Knowledge Maps, Video conferencing

Explicit Knowledge
– Can be easily codified,
– Embedded in procedures,
– Represented in documents,
– Transferred with reasonable accuracy
Cultures of Knowledge Transfer
• Lack of trust
• Different, cultures, language, mental models
• Lack of time and meeting places
• Status and rewards issues
• Lack of absorptive capacity
• Not-invented-here syndrome
• Intolerance for errors and mistakes
“the movement of knowledge within the organization is a distinct experience, not a gradual process of dissemination, and depends on the characteristics of everyone involved”
Transfer of knowledge does not denote a full replication of the knowledge in the receiving unit. Indeed, knowledge is often modified in the receiving unit. The key element in knowledge transfer is not the underlying (original) knowledge, but rather the extent to which the receiving subsidiary receives potentially useful knowledge and utilizes this knowledge in its own operations.
Knowledge Transfer
• Four different modes of knowledge

– Socialization
– Externalization
– Combination
– Internalization

Socialization: “The process of sharing experiences and thereby creating tacit knowledge, such as shared mental models
and technical skills. The key to acquire tacit knowledge is experience. Without some
shared experience, it is extremely difficult for one person to project her/himself into another individual‘s thinking process.”

Externalization: “The process of articulating tacit knowledge into explicit concepts. It may however be difficult to find an adequate verbal expression for a mental image trough use of analytical methods alone. Externalization is therefore often driven by metaphor and/or analogy.”

Combination: “The process of systematizing concepts into a knowledge system, i.e. combining different bodies of explicit
knowledge. This entails reconfiguration of existing information, where sorting, adding, combining and categorising of explicit knowledge can lead to new knowledge.”
Internalization: “This process is closely related to ‘learning by doing’. When tacit knowledge is incorporated and applied in a person‘s or an organization’s tasks. In this conversion mode it helps if knowledge is verbalized or diagrammed into documents or oral presentations.”
Tools of Knowledge Transfer
• Knowledge generation
• Knowledge codification
• Knowledge transfer – spirals
• Tools
– Data management tools- data warehouses, data search
engines, data modeling, visualization
– Information management tools – automated information
search and retrieval agents, decision support
technologies, executive information systems, document
management technologies
– Knowledge management

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