Turkish intelligence service

Milli Istihbarat Teskilati (MIT)

National Intelligence Organization

The first Turkish intelligence organization was established in 1914. It was called Teskilat-i Mahsusa (Special Organization). That organization was replaced by Karakol Cemiyeti (Police Guild) in 1918. In 1920 KC dissolved and the Hamza Grubu (Hazma Group) was established, but not for long because in 1921 it changed its name in Felah Grubu (Felah Group). Between 1920 and 1965 a number of organizations were established and closed down again. To name a just few: Askeri Polis Teskilati (Military Police Organization or “AP”), Tedkik Heyeti Amirlikeri (Inspection Board Directorates) and the Mudafaa-i Milliye (National Defense). The Turkish Grand National Assembly officially approved the establishment of the latter, which became known as “MIM”. Milli Emniyet Hizmeti “MAH” (National Security Service) was founded by Ataturk in 1926 appeared to be a good organization as it stood out until 1965.

On July 22, 1965 law 644 became into force and MAH changed its name in Milli Istihbarat Teskilati “MIT” (National Intelligence Organization). The same law also provided for the control of the organization by an Undersecretary that would be subordinate only to the Prime Minister in the fulfilment of duties defined under the law.

I have copied a small part of the Law in which the general duties are defined.

The MIT is in charge of collecting nationwide security intelligence on existing and potential threats from internal and external sources conducted against

the territorial and national integrity;
the existence, independence and security;
all the elements that make up the constitutional order and the national power of the Republic of Turkey
Intelligence is passed on to the President, the Prime Minister, the Chief of General Staff, the General Secretary of the National Security Council and the other relevant state organizations.

The MIT is in charge of meeting the intelligence requirements and needs of the President, the Prime Minister, the Chief of General Staff, the General Secretary of the National Security Council and the other relevant ministries in the preparation and implementation of the plans concerning the national security policies of the State.

The MIT is in charge of counter-intelligence.

The MIT can not be given any other duty than those mentioned above and this organization can not be led to any other field of activity than collecting intelligence concerning the security of the State.

MIT’s organization:

Undersecretary
Inspection Board Directorate
Legal Counselor
Media Relations Dept
Dept of General Coordination
Deputy Undersecretary (Intelligence)
Dir of Intelligence
Dir of Psychological Intelligence
Dir of Electronic and Technical Intelligence
Dir of Computer Systems
Deputy Undersecretary (Operations)
Dir of Operations
Regional Directorates
Representations abroad
Deputy Undersecretary (Administrations)
Dir Personnel
Dir of Administrative Affairs
MIT Training Center
Secretariat of Defence
DIRECTORATE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL INTELLIGENCE
This directorate is in charge of psychological intelligence within and outside the country.
DIRECTORATE OF ELECTRONIC AND TECHNICAL INTELLIGENCE
The main duties of this directorate are ELINT (Electronic intelligence) and SIGINT (Signal intelligence) activities. Within the framework of the duties and responsibilities as defined under the law, the MIT is successfully conducting its primary mission of counteracting all electronic and technical attacks against Turkey.
DIRECTORATE OF INTELLIGENCE
The directorate is responsible for determining the information needed on the internal and external elements threatening the national and territorial integrity, the existence, the freedom, the security, the Constitutional order and the institutions of the Republic of Turkey; for passing this need to the operational units; and for disseminating the intelligence produced after assessing the gathered information to the relevant institutions at the right time.
THE DIRECTORATE OF OPERATIONS
After the intelligence requirements are determined by the Directorate of Intelligence, the Directorate of Operations will take over. This unit collects information from covert sources in Turkey and abroad for the MIT.
The directorate also collects intelligence about organized crimes such as drugs trafficking, money laundering and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, either for terrorist or ideological purposes. In accordance with Law 2937, the MIT’s interests include domestic and external organizations, financial resources, acts and movements of subversive or separatist elements working against the Constitutional order of the Republic of Turkey. Another duty of the directorate is to prevent the activities of foreign intelligence organizations in Turkey, such as collecting information or manipulating some individuals or groups.
Icosleri Bakanligi (IB)
Ministry of Interior
The MoI directs the National Police and several special commando units.

Emniyet Genel Mudurlugu “EGM” (General Directorate for Security)
which is responsible for internal security operations and the collection of security intelligence;
Ozel Haraket Tim “OHT” (Special Police Forces);
Ozel Jandarma Komando Bolugu (OJKB)
a special commando unit of the police (Gendarmerie). This is the main counter-terrorist unit. It has three special force companies and is specialized in anti-terrorist operations, hostage rescue and anti-hijacking, as well as riot control. In times of war the Gendarmerie falls under military command.
Disisleri Bakanligi (DB)
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
The MFA has a small intelligence assessment section. It also runs a research center.

Genelkurmay Bakanligi (GB)
Chief of the General Staff
The GB directs the Turkish military intelligence unit “J2”. In addition to “J2” the army, navy and air force all have intelligence units.

According to the Turkish Daily News (11 July 1997) the GB also runs an unit that monitors illegal islamic fundamentalist activities.

Sources
http://www.mit.gov.tr/
CIA World Factbook
Espionage, an encyclopedia of spies and secrets
Brassey’s International Intelligence Yearbook 2003

www.fas.org

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