Archive for the ‘World’ category

Bibliography on the Armenian genocide

November 10, 2006


The following bibliography is taken from the “History of the Armenian Genocide” by Vahakn N. Dadrian through the courtesy of the author to whom we express our profound appreciation not only for his courtesy but also for his life-long dedication to the study of the Armenian Genocide.



Osterreichisches Staatsarchiv. Die Akten des k. u. k. Ministeriums des Aussern 1848-1918 (Foreign Ministry Archives ot Austria in Vienna) Abteilung XII: Turkei Kartons (files) 462,463; XL. Interna File 272; Konsulate 38, file 303; Karton Rot 947.


European Parliament Resolution. Doc. No. A2-33/87. 31(1987). Agenda Item 10. Resolution on a Political Solution to the Armenian Question.


German State Archive (Staatsarchiv) vols. 31, 32, 33 H.V. Kremer-Auenrode and Hirsch, eds. Leipzig, 1877.

Federal Republic of Germany, Akten des Auswdrtigen Amtes 1867-1920 (West Germany’s Foreign Office Archives, Bonn) Abteilung IA (Political Dept.)

The Diplomatic Archives of the Foreign Ministry of Germany (Die Diplomatischen Akten des Auswartigen Amtes), vols. 9, 10, 11, 12(1), 12(2).

Orientalia Generalia. No. 5. vol. 30. (1896).

Turkei, file numbers 158 and 183, with sets of volumes (Band), and corresponding entry numbers, preceded by letter A, attached to them.

Botschaft Konstantinopel (K) Consular documents.

Grosses Hauptquartier, (German General Headquarters) vols. 185, 187, 194.

German Military Archives (Bundesarchiv-Militararchiv), i.e., BA/MA.

Deutschland und Armenien, 1914-1918: Sammlung diplomatischer Aktenstucke. J. Lepsius ed., 1919. (German Foreign Office archive documents dealing almost entirely with the World War I Armenian deportations and massacres).

The German Documents on the Outbreak of the War 1914. (Die deutschen Dokumente zum Kriegsausbruch 1914), compiled by K. Kautsky. Max Graf von Montgelas, and Walter Schuckling, eds., 2nd expanded ed, vol. 1. Berlin. 1922.

The Talat Pasa Trial (Der Prozess Talaat Pascha) Stenographic Records. Berlin, 1921.


Archives du Ministere des Affaires Etrangeres. Quai d’Orsay, Paris (Foreign Ministry Archives)

Documents Diplomatiques. Affaires Armeniennes. Projets de Reformes Dans l’Empire Ottoman 1893-1897 (Livre Jaune) Paris, 1897.

Documents Diplomatiques. Affaires Armeniennes (Supplement) 1895-1896. Paris 1897.

Documents Diplomatiques Francais 1871-1900. vols. XI, XII, Paris, 1947, 1951.

Nouvelle Serie: Correspondance politique et commercial 1897: Turquie. Politique interieure. Dossier General, vols. 7 and 8. Jeunes Turcs.

Guerre 1914-1918: vols. I, II, III. Turquie. 887-889 Armenie. August 1914-December 1915, January 1916-March 1917, April 1917-May 1918.

Les Grandes Puissances, L’Empire Ottoman et les Armeniens dans les archives francaises (1914-1918). (A. Beylerian, ed. 1983). (French Foreign, War, and General Headquarters Office documents dealing with the Armenian genocide).


British Documents on Ottoman Armenians, vol. I. 1856-1880 (Ankara. 1982); vol. 2. 1880-1890. 1983. B. Simsir, ed.

Blue Book Series on Turkey. 1877-1881, 1895-1897. (Reports by Her Majesty’s Diplomatic and Consular Agents in Turkey Respecting the persecution, oppression and massacres of the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire)

Foreign Office (FO) Archives. Public Record Office, London and Kew.

Class 371 Files. Political: General Correspondence, 1915-1920. (persecution, deportation, massacres of Armenians in Turkey)

Class 608 Files. Paris Peace Conference Records, 1919-1920

WO 106. War Office Directorate of Military Operations and Intelligence.

Great Britain. Parliament. The Treatment of the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire: Documents Presented to Viscount Grey of Fallodon, Secretury of State for Foreign Affairs. (Compiled by A. Toynbee. Miscellaneous No. 31, 1916). (A massive collection of accounts on the Armenian genocide up to summer 1916 by European and American observers in wartime Turkey.)

Armenia. Parliamentary Debates, House of Lords. (November 13, 1918); House of Commons (October 23, 24, 30. 31, November 6, 7, 12, 14, 18, 1918) A. Raffi, ed. London, 1918.

British Documents on the Origins of the War 1889-1914. Part I, vol. 9. Gooch and Temperley, eds. London, 1926.

Documents on British Foreign Policy 1919-1939, vol. 4. First Series, W. Woodward and R. Butler, eds. London, 1952.


Ottoman Archives. Yildiz Collection. The Armenian Question, vol. 1. Tailori Incidents. Istanbul Research Center, 1989.

Corps de Droit Ottoman, Code de Procedure Penale (Treatise of Ottoman Law, Code of Criminal Procedure) G. Young, vol. 7. Oxford, 1906.

Ottoman Constitution (Midhat). reprinted in American Journal of International Law. 2 (Supp. 1908): The French text of the Constitution is in Schopoff, Reformes.

Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi Gizli Celse Zabitlari (The Transcripts of the Secret Sessions of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey) (Turkiye Is Βanka Cultural Series, Publ. No. 267), 4 vols.; vol. 4 (March 2, 1923-Oct. 25, 1934) Ankara, 1985.

Takvimi Vekayi issues (Ottoman government’s official gazette whose supplements [ilave] served as judicial journal, recording the proceedings of the Turkish Military Tribunal that tried the authors of the Aimeman genocide Istanbul, 1919-20).

Meclisi Mebusan Zabit Ceridesi (Transcripts of the Proceedings of the Chamber of Deputies) Third Election Period. Fifth Session. 1918.

Meclisi Ayan Zabit Ceridesi (Transcripts of the Proceedings of the Senate) Third blection Period. Fifth Session. 1918.

Harb Kabinelerinin Isticvabi (War Cabinet Ministers’ Hearings) by Ottoman Chamber of Deputies Fifth Committee. November-December, 1918 (1334). (This is an abbreviated version of the transcripts of the hearings which the Istanbul Turkish daily Vakit in 1933 published in the form of a Special Supplement. The complete version ol the transcripts was published by the Fifth Committee itself under the title Meclisi Mebusan Zabitlari [Records of the Proceedings of the Chamber of Deputies] Third Parliament, 5th session, No. 521) Istanbul, 1918.

Nutuk. Kemal Ataturk (Speech, K. Ataturk), vol. 3, 7th ed. Istanbul, n.d.

Tarihi Muhakeme (Historical Trial [of the authors ot the Armenian genocide]) (Kit. Sudi ed.) Istanbul, 1919 (This volume contains the transcripts of the first two sessions of the Cabinet Ministers’ trials described under VI, Takvimi Vekayi).

K. Karabekir, Istiklal Harbimiz (Our War of Independence). Istanbul, 1st ed. 1960; 2d ed. 1969. (A massive compilation of official documents covering mainly the political and military correspondence between the fledgling Ankara government and the Commander in Chief of Ankara’s Eastern Front Army 1919-20).

A Speech Delivered by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk 1927 (Istanbul, 1963) (Contains the pertinent documents in support of Mustafa Kemal’s account of the direction of the Turkish War of Independence and its aftermath, 1919-1924. The speech lasted six days, Oct. 15-20, 1927, and was delivered before the Deputies and Representatives of the Republican Party that was founded by him. The volume is published under the auspices of the Turkish Ministry of Education).

The Imperial Ottoman Penal Code. J. Bucknill and H. Utidjian trans. Oxford, 1913.

Documents. (purporting to demonstrate Armenian guilt and the relative innocence of the Ittihad government), vol. I. Compiled by The Office of Press and Information, Directorate General, Prime Ministry. Ankara, 1982.


Escor Comm. on Human Rights, Sub-Comm. on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities. U.N. ESCOR Comm. on Human Rights, Sub-Comm. on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities (38th sess.) (Item 57) 7, U.N: Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1985/SR.36 (1985) (summary record of 36th meeting, Aug. 29, 1985).

Agenda Item 4, Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (1985) (the Whitaker report reviewing the historical antecedents of genocide).

Summary Record of the 36th Meeting of Sub-Comm. (1985) (the Sub-Commission’s favorable response to the Whitaker report defining the World War I massacre against the Armenians as genocide). Revised and updated report on the question of the prevention and punishment of the crime of genocide, 38 U.N. ESCOR Comm. on Human Rights, Subcomm. on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, (Agenda Item 4), 8-9, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1985/6 (1985).

The United Nations War Crimes Commission, History of the United Nations War Crimes Commission and the Development of the Laws of War. London, 1948.


United States, Dept of State, National Archives Record Groups, i.e., R.G. 59 and R.G. 256, Relating to the:

Internal Affair of Turkey 1910-1929 R.G. 59. 867.4016, Race Problems (persecution, deportation, massacres and expulsion from Turkey of the Armenians).

The American Commission to Negotiate Peace at the Paris Peace Conference R.G. 256. 867.00. Turkey (political affairs).

United States, Dept. of State. Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States. 1915 Supplement The World War. Washington, 1928.

United States, Dept. of State. Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States. The Lansing Papers. 1914-1920. (L.) (In two volumes) vol. 1. Washington, D.Ρ., 1939.

132 Cong. Rec. (1986) (Statements by a host of U.S. Senators noting the Armenian genocide in their arguments in support of the U.S. ratification of the U.N. Convention on Genocide).

The Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace. Stanford. Imperial Russian Interior Ministry. Foreign Affairs Department of the Secret Service of the Police. Section 4.




Akcam, . Siyasi Kulturumuzde Zulum ve Iskence (Atrocity and Torture in Our Political Culture). Istanbul, 1992.

____. Turk Ulusal Kimligi ve Ermeni Sorumu. (Turkish National Identity and the Armenian Question). Istanbul, 1992.

Akcura,Y. Uc Tarzi Siyaset (Three Pathways of Policy). Ankara, 1987.

Aksin, S. 100 Soruda Jon Turkler ve Ittihat ve Terakki (The Young Turks and Ittihad ve Terakki in the Context of 100 Questions). Istanbul, 1980.

____. Istanbul Hukumetleri ve Milli Mucadele (The Istanbul Governments and the National Struggle), vol. 1. Istanbul, 1983; vol. 2. Istanbul, 1992.

Amca, H. Dogmayan Hurriyet. Bir Devrin Ic Yuzu 1908-1918 (Freedom Unborn, The Inside Story of an Era 1908-1918). Istanbul, 1958.

Atay, F.R. Cankaya. Istanbul, 1980.

____. Zeytindagi (Mount Olive). Istanbul, 1981.

Avcioglu, D. Milli Kurtulus Tarihi. (History of the National Liberation), vol. 3. Istanbul, 1974.

Aydemir, S.S. Makedonyadan Ortaasya’ya Enver Pasa (Enver Pasa. From Macedonia to Central Asia), vol. 2. Istanbul, 1971; vol. 3. Istanbul, 1972.

Bayar, C. Ben de Yazdim (I Too Have Written), vol. 6. Istanbul, 1968.

Bayur, H.K. Sadrazam Kamil Pasa. Siyasi Hayati (Grand Vizier Kamil Pasa. His Political Life). Ankara, 1954.

Bayur, Y.H. Turk Inkilabi Tarihi (The History of the Turkish Revolution), vol. 2. Part 4. Ankara, 1952; vol. 3. Part 1. 1953; vol. 3. Part 3. 1957; vol. 3. Part 4. 1983.

Belen, General F. Birinci Cihan Harbinde Turk Harbi (The Turkish War During the First World War), vol. 3. Ankara, 1965.

Besikci, I. Kurdistan Uzerinde Emperyalist Bolusum Mucadelesi: 1915-1925 (The Fight over Kurdistan’s Imperialist Partition 1915-1925), vol. 1. Ankara, 1992.

Bleda, M. Imparatorlugun Cokusu (The Collapse of the Empire), Istanbul, 1979.

Cemal, P. Hatiralar. Istanbul, 1977.

Cevdet Pasa, A. Tezakir (Memoirs), vol. 1. Ρ. Baysun, ed. Ankara, 1953.

Culcu, Murat. Ermeni Entrikalarinin Perde Arkasi “Torlakyan Davasi” (The Inside Story of Armenian Intrigues. “The Torlakyan Trial”) Istanbul, 1990.

Cavdar, T. Talat Pasa. Ankara, 1984.

Cosar, S. Osman Aga. Istanbul, 1971.

Danismend, I. Izahli Osmanli Tarihi Kronolojisi (The Annotated Chronology of Ottoman History), vol. 4, 2d ed. Istanbul, 1961.

Duru, K. Ziya Gokalp. Istanbul, 1949.

Erden, Orgeneral A.F. Birinci Dunya Harbinde Suriye Hatiralari (Syrian Memoirs ot World War I), vol. 1 Istanbul, 1954.

Erturk, H. Iki Devrin Perde Arkasi (Behind the Scenes During Two Eras). S.H. Tansu, ed. Istanbul, 1957.

Esatli, M.R. Ittihad ve Terakki Tarihinde Esrar Perdesi (The Curtain of Secrecy in the History of Ittihad). Istanbul, 1975.

Galib, A.R.M. Gecen Asirda Devlet Adamlarimiz (Our Statesmen of the Past Century). Istanbul, 1979.

Gokbilgin, M.. Milli Mucadele Baslarken (As the National Struggle Began), vol. 1. Ankara, 1959.

Gologlu, M., Ucuncu Mesrutiyet 1920. (The Third Constitution 1920). Ankara, 1970.

Goztepe, T.M. Osmanogullarinin Son Padisahi Sultan Vahdeddin Mutareke Gayyasinda (The Last monarch from the Ottoman Dynasty Sultan Vahdeddin in the Impasse of the Armistice). Istanbul, 1969.

Gurun, K. Ermeni Dosyasi (The Armenian File). Ankara, 1983.

Halil Mentesenin Anilari. Istanbul, 1986

Halil Pasa. Ittihad ve Terakki’den Cumhuriyet’e: Bitmeyen Savas (From Ittihad to the Republic: The Unending Fight). M.. Sorgun, ed. Istanbul, 1972.

Hocaoglu, M. Arsiv Vesikalariyla Tarihte Ermeni Mezalimi ve Ermeniler (Armenians and Armenian Atrocities in History Through Archive Documents). Istanbul, 1976.

Izzet, P.A. Feryadim (My Lamentation), vol. 1. Istanbul, 1992.

Jaeschke, G. Turk Inkilabi Tarihi Kronolojisi 1918-1923 (Chronology of the Turkish Revolution). Niyazi R. Aksu, trans. Istanbul, 1939.

Kadri, H.K. Balkanlardan Hicaz’a Imparatorlugun Tasfiyesi. 10 εοοθz Inkilabi ve Netayici (The Liquidation of the Empire from the Balkans to Hejaz. The July 10 Revolution and its Results). K. Buyukcoskun ed. Istanbul, 1992.

Kamil, P. Hatirati Sadri Esbak Kamil Pasa (The Memoirs of former Grand Vizier Kamil Pasa) Ottoman Script. Istanbul, [1913].

Kandemir, F. Istiklal Savasinda Bozguncular ve Casuslar (Defeatists and Spies in the Fight for Independence). Istanbul, 1964.

Kansu, M.M. Erzurum’dan Olumune Kadar Atatilrk’le Beraber (From Erzurum On Up to his Death With Ataturk), vol. 1, 2d ed. Ankara, 1986.

Karabekir, K. Istiklal Harbimiz (Our War of Independence), 1st ed. Istanbul, 1960, 2d ed. Istanbul, 1969.

____. Istiklal Harbimizin Esaslari (The Essential Components of Our War of Independence). Istanbul, 1951.

____. Istiklal Harbimizde Enver Pasa ve Ittihat Terakki Erkani (Enver Pasa and the Leadership of Ittihad ve Terakki During the Independence War). Istanbul, 1967.

Kaynar, R. Turkiyede Hukuk Devleti Kurma Yolundaki Hareketler (Movements in Turkey for the Creation of a Legal State). Istanbul, 1983.

Kocas, S. Tarih Boyunca Ermeniler ve Turk-Ermeni Ilisikleri (The Armenians Throughout History and Turko-Armenian Relations). Ankara, 1967.

Kuran, A.B. Osmanli Imparatorlugunda ve Turkiye Cumhuriyetinde Inkilap Hareketleri (Revolutionary Movements in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic). Istanbul, 1959.

Kutay, C. Birinci Dunya Harbinde Teskilati Mahsusa (The Special Organization During World War I). Istanbul, 1962.

____. Celal Bayann Yazmadigi ve Yazmayacagi uc Devirden Hakikatler (Facts on Three Eras About Which Celal Bayar Did Not and Will Not Write). Istanbul, 1982.

____. Talat Pasanin Gurbet Hatiralari (The Memoirs of Talat Pasa in Exile), 3 vols., vols. 2 and 3. Istanbul, 1983.

Kucuk,Y. Turkiye Uzerine Tezler 1908-1978, vol. 1. 3d ed. Istanbul, 1980.

Muderrisoglu, A. Sarikamis Drami (The Drama of Sarikamis), vol. 1. Istanbul, 1988.

Oguz, B. Yuzyillar Boyunca Alman Gercegi ve Turkler (The German Reality in the Course of Centuries and the Turks). Istanbul, 1983.

Oke, Dr. Mim Kemal, Ermeni Meselesi 1914-1923 (The Armenian Question 1914-1923), Istanbul, 1986.

Okte, F. Varlik Vergisi Faciasi (The Tragedy of the Wealth Tax). Istanbul, n.d.

Okyar, F. Uc Devirde Bir Adam (A Man of Three Eras). C. Kutay, ed. Istanbul, 1980.

Orel, S. and S. Yuca. Ermenilerce Talat Pasa’ya Atfedilen Telegraflarin Gercek Yuzu (The Real Nature of the Telegrams Attributed to Talat Pasa by the Armenians). Ankara, 1983.

Ortayli, I. Osmanli Imparatorlugunda Alman Nufuzu (The German Influence in the history of the Ottoman Empire). Istanbul, 1983.

Osman N. Abdulhamid Sani ve Devri Saltanati. Hayati Hususiye ve Siyasiyesi. (Abdulhamit the Second and His Period of Rule. His Private and Political Life). Ottoman script. vol. 2. Istanbul, 1328/1912.

Refik, A. (Altinay), Iki Komite Iki Kital (Two Committees and Two Massacres) Ottoman Script. Istanbul, 1919.

Sabis, A.I. Harb Hatiralarim (My War Memoirs), vol. 1. Istanbul, 1943;idem, vol. 2. Ankara, 1951.

Sakir, Z. 1914-1918 Cihan Harbini Nasil Idare Ettik (How Did We Direct the 1914-1918 World War). Istanbul, 1944.

Samih, A. Buyuk Harpte Kafkas Cephesi (The Caucasus Front in the Great War). Ankara, 1934.

Sener, C. Topal Osman Olayi (The Topal Osman Affair). Ankara, 1968.

Simsir, B. Malta Surgunleri (The Malta Exiles). Istanbul, 1976.

Sultan II Abdulhamid Han, Devlet ve Memleket Goruslerim (My Views on State and Country). A.A. Cetin and R. Yildiz, eds. Istanbul, 1976.

Tahsin, P. Abdulhamit Yildiz Hatiralari (Abdul Hamit’s Yildiz [Palace] Memoirs). Istanbul, 1931.

Talat Pasanin Hatiralari. (The Memoirs of Talat Pasa). E. Bolayir ed. Istanbul, 1946.

Tarihi Muhakeme. (Historical Trial [of the authors of the Armenian Genocide]). Ottoman Script. K. Sudi, ed. Istanbul, 1919. The first two sessions of Cabinet Ministers’ trials.

Tunaya, T.Z. Turkiyede Siyasal Partiler (The Political Parties in Turkey), 3 vols., 2d enl. ed. Istanbul, 1984.

Turkgeldi, A.F. Gorup Isittiklerim (The Things I Witnessed and Heard). 2d ed. Ankara, 1951.

Uras, E. Tarihte Ermeniler ve Ermeni Meselesi (The Armenians and the Armenian Question in History), 1st ed. Istanbul, 1950; 2d ed. 1976.

Vakit. Harb Kabinelerinin Isticvabi (The War Cabinets Hearings). Istanbul, 1933. (Special Supplement on Memoirs and Documents, no. 2.)

Vardar, G. Ittihad ve Terakki Icinde Donenler (The Inside Story of Ittihad ve Terakki). S.H. Tansu, ed. Istanbul, 1960.

Yalman, A.E. The Development in Modern Turkey as Measured by the Press. New York, 1914.

____. Turkey in my Time. Norman, Okla., 1956.

____. Turkey in the World War. New Haven, Connecticut, 1930.

____. Yakin Tarihte Gorduklerim ve Isittiklerim (The Things I Saw and Heard in Recent History), 4 vols. Istanbul, 1970.


Ahmad, F. The Young Turks. Oxford, 1969.

Alamuddin, Ida. Papa Kuenzler and the Armenians, London, 1970.

Argyll, Duke of (George John Douglas Campbell, formerly Secretary of State for India and Lord Privy Seal), Our Responsibilities for Turkey. London, 1896.

Aristotle. Politics. Jowett and Twining, trans. New York, 1959.

Armenian National Delegation. The Lausanne Treaty, Turkey and Armenia. New York, 1926.

Bailey, F.E. British Policy and the Turkish Reform Movement: A Study in Anglo-Turkish Relations 1826-1853. New York, 1970.

Bardakjian, K. Hitler and the Armenian Genocide. Cambridge, Mass., 1985.

Bassiouni, M.C. Crimes Against Humanity in International Law. Boston, 1992.

Bat Ye’or [Y. Masriya]. The Dhimmi: Jews and Christians Under Islam. D. Maisel, P. Fenton, D. Littman, trans. London, 1985.

Berkes, N. The Development of Secularism in Turkey. Montreal, 1964.

Bernstorff, J. Memoirs of Count Bernstorff. E. Sutton, trans. New York, 1936.

Boyajian, D. Armenia. The Case for a Forgotten Genocide. Westwood, New Jersey, 1972.

British Documents on the Origins of the War 1889-1914, vol. IX: 1. Gooch and Temperley, eds. London,1926.

Bryce, J. Transcaucasia andArarat. London, 1896.

____. The Treatment of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire 1915-16. Compiled by A. Toynbee. London,1916.

Calic, E. Unmasked. R. Barry, trans. London, 1971.

Campbell, G. (Duke of Argyll). Our Responsibilities for Turkey. London, 1896.

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Violation of the Laws and Customs of War: Report of the Majority and Dissenting Reports of the American and Japanese Members of the Commission on Responsibilities at the Conference of Paris. Pamphlet No. 32. Oxford, 1919.

Cecil, Lady G. (Salisbury’s daughter) Life of Robert, Marquis of Salisbury, 4 vols. London, 1921-1931.

Chaliand, G. and Y. Ternon. The Armenians from Genocide to Resistance. London, 1981.

Churchill, W. The World Crisis. The Aftermath. London, 1929.

Davis, L. The Slaughterhouse Province. S. Blair, ed. New Rochelle, New York, 1989.

Davis, W.S. The Roots of the War. New York, 1918.

Dawson, W.H. The Cambridge History of British Foreign Policy, vol. III. Cambridge, 1923.

De Nogales, R. Four Years Beneath the Crescent. M. Lee, trans. New York, 1926.

Documents on British Foreign Policy 1919-1939. First Series. W.L. Woodward and R.

Butler, eds. London, 1952.

Dornberg, J. Munich 1923. The Story of Hitler’s First Grab for Power. New York, 1982.

Edib, H. The Turkish Ordeal. New York, 1928.

____. Memoirs of New York, New York, 1926.

Einstein, L. Inside Constantinople. New York, 1918.

Encyclopedia of World History. W. Langer. rev. ed. Boston, 1948.

Fawaz, Leila. An Occasion for War Ethnic Conflict in Lebanon and Damascus. Berkeley, 1994.

Feis, H. Europe, the World’s Banker 1870-1914. New Haven, 1930.

Fenwick, Ρ. International Law. Rev. enl. ed. New York, 1934.

Fest, J.C. Hitler. Richard and Clara Winston, trans New York, 1975.

Festinger, L. A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance. Stanford, California, 1957.

Garner, J. International Law and the World War, vol. 2. London, 1920.

Genocid.e A Critical Bibliographic Review. W. Charny, ed. vol. 1,London, 1988.

George, L. Memoirs of the Peace Conference, vol. 2. London, 1939.

German,y Turkey and Armenia (A selection of documentary evidence relating to the Armenian atrocities from German and other sources) London, 1917.

Gibb, H.A.R. and H. Bowen. Islamic Society and the West, vol. 1: 2. Oxford, 1962.

Gilbert, M. The Holocaust The Jewish Tragedy, 3d ed. London, 1987.

The Goebbels Diaries. L. Lochner, ed., trans. New York, 1948.

Goerlitz, W. History of the German General Staff 1657-1945, Β. Battershaw, trans. New York, 1953.

Gokalp, Z. Turkish Nationalism and Westem Civilization. N. Berkes, trans., ed. London, 1959.

Gooch, G.P. History of Modern Europe 1878-1919. New York, 1923.

Gottlieb, W.W. Studies in Secret Diplomacy during the First World War. London, 1957.

Grant, A.J. and H. Temperley, Europe in the Nineteenth and the Twentieth Centuries (1789-1914). London, 1962.

Graves, Dr. ΐ.K. The Secrets of the German War Office (with the collaboration of E.L. Fox) 4th ed. New York, 1914.

Graves, Sir R. Storm Centers of the Near East (Personal Memoirs 1879-1929). Constantinople, 1933.

Grey, Viscount of Fallodon, Twenty-Five Years. 1892-1916, vol. 1 New York, 1925.

Gurun, K. The Armenian File. The Myth of Innocence Exposed. New York, 1985.

Hackworth,G.H. International Law, 8 vols. vol. 1. Washington, D.Ρ., 1940-1944.

Hartunian, A.H. Neither to Laugh Nor to Weep. A Memoir of the Armenian Genocide. Vartan Hartunian, trans. Boston, 1968; 2d. ed. Cambridge, MA, 1986.

Helmreich, P.C. From Paris to Sevres. Columbus, Ohio, 1974.

Hepworth, G.H. Through Armenia on Horseback, New York, 1898.

Herbert, A. Ben Kendim. A Record of Eastern Travel, 2nd. ed. London, 1924.

Hertslet, E. The Map of Europe by Treaty, vol. 4. (1875-1891) London, 1891.

Hilberg, R. The Destruction of the European Jews Chicago, 1969.

Hovannisian, R. Armenia on the Road to Independence 1918. Berkeley, Calif., 1967.

____. ed. The Armenian Genocide: History, Politics, Ethics. New York, 1992.

____. The Armenian Holocaust. (A Bibliography Relating to the Deportation, Massacres, and Dispersion of the Armenian People, 1915-1923). Cambridge, Mass., 1980.

Hurewitz, J.Ρ. Diplomacy in the Near and Middle East, A Documentary Record; 1535-1914, vol. 1. Princeton, New Jersey, 1956.

The Imperial Ottoman Penal Code. J. Bucknill and H. Utidjian trans. Oxford, 1913.

Ismail, K.Β., The Memoirs of Ismail Kemal Bey. S. Story, ed. London, 1920.

International Law: A Contemporary Perspective. R. Falk, F. Kratochwil, and S. Mendlowitz, eds. Boulder, Colorado, 1985.

Jackh, E. The Rising Crescent. New York, 1944.

Jackson, R. The Nurnberg Case as Presented by Robert H. Jackson, Chief of Counsel for the United States. Together with Other Documents. New York, 1971.

Karpat, K. Ottoman Population 1830-1914. Madison, WI, 1985.

Kazemzadeh, F. The Struggle for Transcaucasia (1917-1922). New York, 1951.

Kinross, Lord. The Ottoman Centuries. New York, 1977.

Kuper, L. Genocide: Its Political Use in the Twentieth Century. New Haven, Conn., 1981.

____. The Prevention of Genocide. New Haven, Connecticut, 1985.

Langer, W. The Diplomacy of Imperialism 1890-1902, vol. 1. New York, 1935.

Lauterpacht, H. The Grotian Tradition in International Law: A Contemporary Perspective. R. Falk, F. Kratochwil, and S. Mendlowitz, eds. 1985.

League of Nations, Permanent Court of International Justice, Advisory Committee of Jurists. Proces-Verbaux of the Proceedings of the Committee June 16-July 24. Geneva, 1920.

MacColl, M. The Sultan and the Powers. London, 1896.

Mariott, J. The Eastern Question (An Historical Study in European Diplomacy), 4th ed. Reprinted. Glasgow, 1958.

Maurois, A. Disraeli. H. Miles, trans. Chautauqua, N.Y., 1930.

Mears, E.G. Modern Turkey: A Politico-Economic Interpretation 1908-1923 Inclusive. New York, 1924.

Melson, R. Revolution and Genocide. On the Origins of the Armenian Genocide and the Holocaust. Chicago, 1992.

Midhat, A.H. The Life of Midhat Pasha. London, 1903.

Morgenthau, H. Ambassador Morgenthau’s Story. New York, 1918.

Morley, J. The Life of Gladstone, vol. 1. New York, 1909.

Mullins, C. The Leipzig Trials. New York, 1921.

Nalbandian, L. The Armenian Revolutionary Movement. Berkeley, 1963.

Nansen, F. Armenia and the Near East. London, 1928. Reprinted, New York, 1976.

Nassibian, A. Britain and the Armenian Question 1915-1923. London, 1984.

n.a. The Near East From Within. New York, n.d. (probably winter 1914-15)

An Old Indian, Historical Sketch of Armenia and the Armenians (With Special Reference to the Present Crisis). London, 1896.

Oppenheim, L. International Law, vol. 2. H. Lauterpacht, ed. 7th ed. London, 1952.

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Stillschweig, K. “Das Abkommen zur Bekampfung von Genocide.” Die Friedenswarte fur Zwischenstaatliche Organisation 3 (1949).

Werner, E. “Okonomishce und Militarische Aspekte der Turkei-Politik Osterreich-Ungarns 1915 bis 1918,” Jahrbuch fur Geschichte 10 (1974).


Hanotaux, G. “En Orient,” Revue de Paris 6 (December 1, 1895).

Mandelstam, A. “La Societe des Nations et les puissances devant le probleme armenien.” Revue Generale de Droit International Public 29, 5 (September-October 1922): 301-84; 29, 6 (November-December 1922): 515-46; 30, 5 (September-October 1923): 414-506; 31, 6 (New Series) (1924).

Panzac, D. “L’enjeu du nombre. La population de la Turquie de 1914 a 1927.” Revue du Monde Musulman de la Meditarranee 50, 4 (1988).

Pinon, R. “La liquidation de 1′Empire Ottoman.” Revue des Deux Mondes 53 (September 1919).

____. “L’Offensive de l’Asie” Revue des deux Mondes (April 15, 1920).

Quillard, P. “Pour 1′Armenie,” Memoire et Dossier (19th issue of the series) (Paris, 1902).

Rio, Ρ. “Etude sur 1′article 175 du code penal mexicain ‘genocide.’” Etudes Internationales de Psycho-Sociologie Criminelle 16-17 (1969).


Hayrabedian, H. “Hadoutzoum” (Settling Scores). Sovetakan Haiasdan 8 (1984).

Hovannissian, R. “Vanee 1896 Tuwee Eenknabashdbanoutiunu” (The Self-Defense of Van in 1896), Lraper (July, 1976).

“Kegham Der Garabedianee Vugayatounu” (The Testimony of K. D. G.). In Badmoutiun Daronee Achkharee (History of Daron), 838-54, G. Sassouni, ed. (1957).

Khoren S. “Hishoghutiunner” (Memories), In Teotig, Amenoun Daretzouytzu (Everyone’s Almanac), 10-14: 132-36. (1916-1920).

Mugurditchian, H. “Kaghdniknerou Gudzigu” (The Thread of the Secrets), Hairenik (an Armenian daily published by the author during the Armistice for a very short period in Istanbul). Installments Nos. 1 and 2 (October 28/November 10; October 30/November 12,1918).

Sirounee, H. “Yegem mu yev eer Badmutyunu” (A Genocide and its History). Etchmiadzin (February-March-April joint issue 1965).

Yayloian, A. “Medz Deroutiunneri Gogme Moratzuadz Jhogovourt” (A People Forsaken by the Great Powers). Sovetakan Haiasdan. 4 (1987).


NEWSPAPERS (mostly from Constantinople-Istanbul. 1908-1920 Period).


Alemdar; Cumhuriyet; Dunya; Hadisat; Hayat; Hurriyet; Minber; Sabah; Tanin; Tasviri Efkar; Vakit


Azadamard (Ariamard); Hairenik (Armistice Daily, Istanbul); Nayiri; Zhamanag


Le Courrier de Turquie; L’Entente; L’Epoque; Le Journal d’Orient; Renaissance; Spectateur d’Orient


Berliner Tageblatt; Die Zeit; Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung; Kolnische Zeitung


Bakinski Rabotichi


Boston Globe; New York Times and its weekly reviews: Current History

Great Britain

London Times



In Turkish

Aksin, Sina, 1980: A critical examination of the ideology of Ittihad and of the conditions under which original liberalism gave way to autocracy and anti-minority oppression.

Aksin, Sina, 1983: Describes the conditions under which the Sultan’s government in Istanbul grew weak in the Armistice and got embroiled in a hopeless contest with the Kemalist insurgents in Anatolia.

Atay, F.R.: The personal contacts with top Ittihadist leaders are recounted with considerable candor by the author who, as a former Ittihadist and subsequently an ardent Kemalist, had access to the inner circles of both regimes, thus able to learn some secret details about the attitudes and actions of men persecuting the Armenians.

Avcioglu, D.: Chronicles the phases of the Turkish War of Independence with details, some of which are revealing as far as they relate to the secret aspects of the wartime Armenian deportations culminating in genocide.

Bayur, Y.H. A systematic approach to the conduct of the Ittihadist authorities prosecuting the war and in the process resorting to the Armenian deportations as a wartime emergency measure. Written under the auspices of the Turkish Historical Society and strictly from a Turkish point of view.

Bleda, M.: The edited memoirs of the chief administrator of the Ittihadist party explaining, justifying and excusing many of the transgressions and excesses of some of the top party leaders.

Erturk, H.: Provides certain disclosures about the inner workings of the Special Organization and its relationship to the Central Committee of the party.

Gurun, K.: An elaborate attempt to deny any Turkish design of extermination of the Armenians, whose wartime losses are entirely attributed to the poor management of “the relocation” scheme, to Kurdish excesses and Armenian provocations through insurgency.

Karabekir, K.: A massive compilation of official documents relating to the Turkish War of Independence and to the Kemalist invasion of the Republic of Armenia in 1920.

Orel S. and S. Yuca.: Like the other two books by Bayur and Gurun described above, this volume is also sponsored and supported by the Turkish Historical Society, thus representing directly and indirectly official governmental stances on very controversial subjects, such as the wartime treatment of the Armenians. The two authors through this book endeavor to discredit completely another volume described to contain official Turkish documents on the authorization and implementation of the Armenian genocide, by declaring these documents “forgeries.” For the refutation of these charges see Dadrian below on Naim-Andonian Documents in Articles Section in English.

Refik, A.: This is perhaps the main, if not the only, Turkish work, produced right after the war, that unequivocally admits the exterminating thrust of the wartime Armenian deportations and the premeditated and organized character of the mass murder involved. The value of this book is enhanced by the fact that the author had a military background, was assigned to Department II of the War Office where the military details of the genocide are reported to have been mapped out, and he quotes the War Ministry officials trying to concoct false accusations against the Armenians in an attempt to justify the severity of the anti-Armenian measures. A part of the book relates also the revenge acts of Armenian volunteers attached to the Causasian Russian Army, which in 1916 had captured several provinces in eastern Turkey, whose Armenian population by then had already been destroyed.

Talat Pasanin Hatiralari: A fragment of the memoirs Talat reportedly prepared while living in Berlin as a fugitive of justice, edited by others .Essentially, it is an effort of self-justification and of shifting the blame to others for the disastrous war and the excesses committed in the course of it, including the Armenian massacres.

Uras, E.: A major undertaking by a former Turkish secret service agent to trace the evolution of the Armenian Question to its historical origins, to minimize the responsibility of the Abdul Hamit regime in the outbreak of the massacres of that period and altogether blame the Armenian revolutionaries for the misfortunes befalling the Armenian population during the reign of Abdul Hamit and subsequently during World War I.

Vardar, G.: Another piece of inside story type of narration relating to the role of Special Organization operatives in the creation and development of Kemalist insurgency in the 1918-1920 period from cells in Istanbul, right under the nose of the Sultan’s government.

Yalman, A.E., 1970: The first 2 volumes of this 4-volume memoir contain a wealth of information on the Ittihadist chiefs who, along with the author, were interned in Malta for later trials before an international court on charges of war crimes, including Armenian massacres.

Ahmad, F.: A compact account of the trials and tribulations of the Ittihadist Young Turks endeavoring to govern the country in the aftermath of their successful revolution without possessing, however, the requisite experience, competence or the administrative personnel.

In English

Genocide. A Critical Bibliographic Review. A survey by R. Hovannisian of the more important works in several languages on the Armenian genocide through brief annotations attached to the respective bibliography.

Hovannisian, R., 1967: This study describes the overall post-genocide conditions playing out in the formation of the independent Republic of Armenia and at the same time aggravating the latter’s plight economically and politically.

Hovannisian, R., 1980: A bibliography of source materials on the Armenian genocide in terms of archive depositories, published documentary tomes, historical studies and eyewitness accounts.

Institut fur Armenische Fragen: Two volumes comprising a large body of selected documents dealing with the history of Armenian persecution and massacres in the 19th and 20th centuries. The archives of Europe, Russia, the United States and eyewitness accounts in several languages constitute the source-bases of the two tomes.

Kuper, L., 1981: A pioneering study in the comparative aspects of the crime of genocide and the problems of conceptualization and theory construction.

Mariott, J.: One of the best analyses of the origin, rise and the violent explosion of the Eastern Question in the Balkans.

Morgenthau, H.: The most detailed personal account, based mostly on regular diary entries, of the processes of decision making, organization and execution relative to the wartime Armenian massacres, narrated by an American Ambassador to Turkey.

Nansen, F.: Exposure of the dimensions of the impact upon the fate of the surviving Armenians of the World War I Armenian genocide by a Nobel Peace Prize winning humanitarian High Commissioner of Refugees.

Permanent Peoples’ Tribunal.: The summary description of the proceedings of the Permanent Peoples’ Tribunal investigating at Sorbonne in Paris the World War I Armenian massacres and reaching the verdict that these massacres involved genocide. The Panel of judges included several experts on international law and three Nobel laureates.

Shaw and Shaw: A comprehensive survey of modern Ottoman history with a strong bias for Turkish historiographic parochialism, which bias lapses into outright misrepresentation in the treatment of the Armenian Question, especially with regard to the series of massacres in modern times, including World War I.

Stoddard, P.: The only English language study, in a rudimentary form, of the origins of the Special Organization and its operational program respecting the Arabs. It utilizes some authentic Turkish sources, including interviews with one of its chief leaders.

Trumpener, U.: One of the most thorough analyses of the Armenian genocide in the light of German state archive documents and within the framework of the wartime political and military alliance between Germany and Turkey.

Ussher, Ρ.: A first hand American account of the Turkish method of initiating the genocide in the easternmost province of Van and then accusing the Armenians of provocation.

Walker, Ρ.: A survey of modern Armenian history within the perspective of the evolving Turko-Armenian conflict and the resulting repressive measures of Ottoman-Turkish authonties.

In French

Domergue, E.: A contemporary French narrative of the Turkish conspiracy to liquidate the Armenian population with the tacit support of the Germans. It has a historical frame of reference.

Engelhardt, E.: One ot the most authoritative treatments of the history, purpose, difficulties, successes and failures of the 19th century Tanzimat reform initiative.

Mandelstam, A., 1917: An informed contribution, by the First Dragoman of Russian Embassy, to the understanding of the wartime conditions under which the Armenians of Turkey were expelled, deported and destroyed.

Mandelstam, A., 1926: The legal examination of the many phases of the Armenian Question from the point of view of international politics and international law.

Noradounghian, G.: A comprehensive compilation of the record of official transactions of the Ottoman Empire in relation to other states in the period indicated.

Schopoff, A.: A catalog of treaties and agreements dealing with the quest for safeguards for the Christian nationalities and minorities of the Ottoman Empire.

Ternon, Y.: A critical inquiry into the Turkish patterns of denial of the Armenian genocide.

In German

Jackh, E.: Written by a confidential operative of the German Foreign Ministry, the book contains some revealing admissions on the 1894-96 and 1909 Adana massacres which foreshadowed the World War I genocide.

Kunzler, J.: A rare, first-hand, eye-witness account of the genocide being enacted in Urfa and its environs.

Lepsius, J.: An expanded version of the wartime collection by Dr. Lepsius of documentary data about the Armenian genocide.

Pomiankowski, J.: An eyewitness account of that genocide by the Austrian Military Plenipotentiary who was attached to the Ottoman Military Headquarters – General Staff.

Sturmer, H.: An eyewitness account of the genocide by the wartime correspondent of the influential German newspaper Kolnische Zeitung.

Zurlinden, S.: A documentary exposure by the Swiss historian of the crimes associated with the wartime deportations of the Armenians.



The following entries form part of the bibliography contained in the “German Responcibility in the Armenian Genocide” by Vahakn N. Dadrian through the courtesy of its author. Entries which also appear in the foregoing bibliography have been omitted.




Federal Republic of Germany, Akten des Auswartigen Amtes 1867-1920 (West Germany’s Foreign Office Archives, Bonn) Abteilung IA (Political Dept.)

Aktenstucke. J. Lepsius ed., 1919. (German Foreign Office archives documents dealing almost entirely with the World War I Armenian deportation and massacres).

A. A. Bonn. Goppert Papers (Nachlass) vol. VI, file 5 (files 1-8).


Archives du Patriarcat de Constantinople (APC). Documents Officiels et Rapports (DOR), Paris (Nubar Library).


Sonyel, Dr. Salahi, Displacement of the Armenians. Documents (pamphlet in English, French and Turkish) Ankara, 1978.




Atilhan, C. R. Filistin Cephesinde Yahudi Casuslar (Jewish Spies in the Palestine Front.) Istanbul, 1947.

Aydemir, S. S. Ikinci Adam (Second Man) vol.1, 3rd ed. Istanbul, 1973.

Bayar, C. Ben de Yazdim. Milli Mucadeleye Giris (I Too Have Written. The Start of the National Struggle) vol. 5. Istanbul, 1967.

Belen, Gen. F. Birinci Cihan Narbinde Turk Harbi. 1916 Yili Hareketleri (The Turkish War in World War I. The Action of 1916) vol. 4. Ankara, 1965.

____. Osmanlidan Cumhuriyete. Yuzyilimizda Bir Insanimiz (From the Ottoman to the Republic Era. Our Man of the Century). Huseyin Rauf Orbay (1881-1964). vol. 4. Istanbul, 1992.

____. Siyasi Mahkumlar Adasi: Malta (Malta: The Island for the Politically Condemned People). Istanbul, 1963.

Kucuk, Dr. A. Donmeler ve Donmelik Tarihi (The Donmes and the History of the Practice of Becoming Donmes. Istanbul, 1979.

Oke, Dr. K. Ermeni Meselesi 1914-1923 (The Armenian Question), Istanbul, 1986.

____. II. Abdulhamid, Siyonistler ve Filistin Meselesi (Abdulhamid II. The Zionist and the Palestine Problem) Istanbul, 1981.

Okyar, F. Uc Devirde Bir Adam (A Man of Three Eras). C. Kutay, ed. Istanbul, 1980.

Olcen, A. N. Osmanli Meclisi Mebusaninda Kuvvetler Ayirimi ve Siyasal Iskenceler (The Debate in the Ottoman Chamber of Deputies on Separation of Powers and Politically Inspired Tortures) Ankara, 1982.

Sertel, M. Z. Hatirladiklarim. 1905-1950 (The Things I Remember). Istanbul, 1968.

Soyasal, I. Dunya ve Turkiyede Masonlar ve Masonluk (Freemasons and Freemasonary in the World and in Turkey) Istanbul, 1980.

Tanyu, Dr. H. Tarih Boyunca Yahudiler ve Turkler (Jews and Turks in the course of History) vol.1, 2nd expanded ed. Ankara, 1977.

Yilmaz, V. 1ci Dunya Harbinde Turk-Alman Ittifaki ve Askeri Yardimlar (The World War I Turko-German Alliance and the Range of Military Assistance). Istanbul, 1993.


Barrows, J. O. In the Land of Ararat. New-York, 1916.

Dadrian, V.N. The History of the Armenian Genocide. Ethnic conflict from the Balkans to Anatolia to the Caucasus. Providence/Oxford, 1995.

Emin (Yalman), A. Turkey in the World War. New Haven, CT. 1930.

Friedman, I. Germany, Turkey, and Zionism. 1897-1918. Oxford, 1977.

Horton, G. Recollections Grave and Gay. Indianapolis, 1927.

Knapp, G.H. The Tragedy of Bitlis. New York, 1919.

Kotker, N. Herzl the King. New York, 1972.

Lewis, Bernard. The Emergence of Modern Turkey. London/New York, 1961, reprinted 1962.

Rowan, R.W. The Story of Secret Service. New York, 1937.

Weizman, C. Trial and Error. Autobiography. 3rd ed. London, 1949.


Eckart, B. Meine Erlebnisse in Urfa. Berlin-Potsdam, 1922.

Guse, F. Die Kaukasusfront im Welktrieg. Leipzig, 1940.

Gust, Wolfgang, Der Volkermord an den Armeniern. Die Tragodie des altesten Christenvolkes der Welt, Ulm, 1993. (The Genocide of the Armenians. The Tragedy of the World’s Oldest Christian People.

von Kressenstein, Kres Friedrich Mit den Turken zum Suezkanal. Berlin, 1938.

von Muller, G.A. Der Kaiser… Aufzeichnungen des Chefs des Marinekabinetts Admiral G.A. V.Muller uber die Ara Wilhelms II. (Navy Cabinet Chef Admiral Muller’s Notes on William II’s Era of Rule) W. Gollitz ed. Gottingen, 1965.

Nicolai, Col. W. Geheime Machte. Internationale Spionage und ihre Bekampfung im Weltkrieg und heute. Leipzig, 1923.

de Nogales, R. Vier Jahre unter dem Halbmond. Berlin, 1925. A major feature of this edition, which by one year preceded the English edition of the original Spanish text is the magnitude of deletions of portions which depict the Turks, especially War Minister Enver, in unsavory situations.

Nossing, Dr. A. die Neue Turkei und Ihre Fuhrer. Halle, 1917.

Rohrbrach, P. Vom Kaukasus zum Mittelmieer. Eine Hochzeits – und Studienreise durch Armenien. Berlin, 1903.

Sommer, Dr. Ernst, Die Wahrheit uber die Leiden des armenischen Volks in der Turkei Wahrend des Weltkriegs. Frankfurt a. Main, 1919.

Ular A. and Instabato, E. Der Erloschende Halbmond. Turkische Enthullungen. Frankfurt A.M. 1909.

von Vietsch, ed., E. Cegen die Unvernunft. Der Briefwechsel zwischen Paul Graf Wolff Metternich und Wilhelm Solf 1915-1918. Bremen, 1964.

Wallach, J.L. Anatomie einer Militarhilfe. Die preussisch-deutschen Militarmissionen in der Turkei 1835-1919. Dusseldorf, 1976.

Zechlin, E. Die deutsche Politik und die Juden im ersten Weltkreig. Gottingen, 1969.


Izzet-Fuad, G. Autres Occasions Perdues… Critique Strategique de la Campagne d’Asie Mineure 1877-1878. Paris, 1908.

Kevorkian. R.H. and Paul B. Paboudjian. Les Armenians dans l’Empire Ottoman a la veilee du genocide. Paris, 1922.

Young, G. Constantinople. Depuis les origines jusqu’a nos jours. Paris, 1934.


Andonian, A. Medz Vodjiru (The Great Crime). Boston, 1921.




Arvas, I. “Tarihi Hakikatler, Eski Van Mebusu Ibrahim Arvasin Hatiralari,” (Historical Facts. The Memoirs of Former Van Deputy Ibrahim Arvas) Yeni Istiklal, April 21, 1965, No. 193.

Ihsan T. (Former Minister of Navy). “Ittihad ve Farmasonlik.” Resimli Tarih Mecmuasi 2, 18 (June 1951).

Kandemir, F. “Ittihat-Terakki.” Yakin Tarihimiz 2 (1962).

Rifki (Atay), F. Dunya, December 17, 1967. Atay’s weekly column Pazar Konusmasi (Sunday talk).


Buheiry, M. R. “Theodor Herzl and the Armenian Question.” Journal of Palastine Studies (February 1977).

Charny, Israel. “A Letter from Professor Lewis,” Internet on the Holocaust and Genocide. Special Tenth Anniversary Issue. 1985-1995. Nos. 54/55/56 (April 1995).

____. “Genocide as a Problem of National and International Law: The World War I Armenian Case and Its Contemporary Legal Ramifications” Yale Journal of International Law 14, 2.

____. “The Comparative Aspects of the Armenian and Jewish Cases of Genocide: A Socio-Historical Perspective,” in Rosenbaum, Alan, ed., Is the Holocaust Unique? Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 101-135 (1966).

Haley, C. D. “The Desperate Ottoman: Enver Pasha and the German Empire” Middle East History 30, 1 (January 1944) and 30,2 (April 1994).

Kedourie, E. “Young Turks, Freemasons and Jews.” Middle Eastern Studies 7, 1 (January 1971).

Weltmann, A. E. “Germany, Turkey, and the Zionist Movement, 1914-1918.” The Review of Politics 23, 1 (January 1961).


Baltzer, K.a.D. “Das romantische Ende der drei grossen Turken der Kriegszeit, Talaat, Enver und Dschemal Pascha. Eine Erinnerung an den 1. November 1918″ Orient-Rundschau (November 10, 1933).

von der Goltz, Freiherr (baron), Retired Colonel, “Die Spionage in der Turkei” Die Weltkriegs-Spionage, Major-General Lettow-Vorbeck, ed., Munich, 1931.

Guse, F. “Der Armenieraufstand 1915 und seine Folgen” Wissen und Wehr vol.6 (1925).

Hartmann, M. “Der Krieg und der Orient” Deutsche-Levante Zeitung 18/19 (October 1, 1914).

Klinghardt, Dr. K. “Frau Koch-v. Winckler aus Aleppo zum Gedachtnis” Orient Rundschau XVI,9 (September 10,1934).

Lepsius, J. “Mein Besuch in Konstantinopel Juli/August 1915″ Der Orient (monthly) No. 1/3 (1919).

Treue, W. “Max Freiherr von Oppenheim – Der Archaologe und die Politik” Hisorische Zeitschrift 209 (1969).


Mesrob, K. “Turkahayern u Turkeru (1914-1918). Andeeb u Bashdonagan Pastatoughter” (Turkish Armenians and the Turks 1914-1918. Unpublished and Official Documents) Haygashen Almanac. vol. 1 (1922).

Revue D’Histoire Armenienne Contemporaire vol.I (1995) (A collection of articles and documents dealing with the history of the Turko-Armenian conflict and the World War I genocide. R. H. Kevorkian, ed.).

Vahram S. “Ariunod Turvakner” (Bloody Episodes) Zhoghovourtee Tzain, February 25, 1919.

“Dzerougee Hishadagneru 1915-1918″ (The Memoirs of Dzeroug 1915-19180). Djagadamard (namesake of Azadamard, organ of the Dashnak party, a daily in Istanbul, which often was closed down by the Turkish authorities and reappeared temporarily under new names) March 2, 1919 issue.


NEWSPAPERS (mostly from Constantinople-Istanbul. 1908-1920 Period).


Zhoghovourtee Tzain


Deutsche-Levante Zeitung; Der Orient; Allgemeine Missions-Zeitschrift





Histoire du Genocide Armenien. Conflits Nationaux des Balkans au Caucase. Paris: Editions Stock. 1996. 682 pp., text, 19 pp. bibliography and Index. Expanded version in French of The History of the Armenian Genocide described next. Trans. Marc Nichanian.

The History of the Armenian Genocide. Ethnic Conflict from the Balkans to Anatolia to the Caucasus. Providence/Oxford: Berghahn Books, 1995. 446 pp. text, xxviii pp. Preface and Introduction. Extensive bibliography in Turkish, German, English, French, and Armenian with annotations to selected works used in the book. Subject and Name Index.

Autopsie du Genocide Armenien. Paris: Editions Complexe, 1995. French translation of “Genocide as a Problem of National and International Law: The World War I Armenian Case and Its Contemporary Legal Ramifications,” Yale Journal of International Law, vol. 14. No. 2. (Summer, 1989). 244 pp. Two Annexes and Bibliography. Trans. Marc and Mikael Nichanian.

Ulusal ve Uluslararasi Hukuk Sorunu Olarak Jenosid. Istanbul: Belge Publishers, 1995. Turkish translation of the 1989 monograph cited above. Trans. Yavuz Alogan, 204 pp.

Haigagan Tzeghasbanoutiumu Khorturanayeen yev Badmakeedagan Kunnargoumnerov (The Treatment of the Armenian Genocide by the Ottoman Parliament and Its Historical Analysis). Boston: Baikar, 1995. In Armenian. 142 pp. and Bibliography in English.


“Genocide as a Problem of National and International Law: The World War I Armenian Case and Its Contemporary Legal Ramifications,” Yale Journal of International Law, vol. 14. No. 2. (Summer, 1989). Printed separately with two Appendices and Bibliography. 134 pp.

“The Armenian Genocide in Official Turkish Records: Collected Essays,” Special issue of Journal of Political and Military Sociology, vol. 22. No. 1. (Summer, 1994). 208 pp.

“Documentation of the Armenian Genocide in German and Austrian Sources” in The Widening Circle of Genocide I. Charny, ed. New Brunswick, N.J., 1994. Expanded and published as a separate unit. 125 pp.


Zarevand, United and Independent Turania. Aims and Designs of the Turks (Leiden, 1971) (From Armenian). 153 pp. text. xxiii pp. Preface and Foreword. Index.


“Egocentric Factors In Ethnocentrism – The Structural Patterns of Modern Nationalism. Sociologus 18, 2: 45-122 (1968).

“On the Dual Role of Social Conflicts.” International Journal of Group Tensions 1, 4: 371-377 (1971).

“The Bi-polar Structure of Nationalism: A Conceptual Approach.” International Review of Sociology (Revue Internationale de Sociologie) 7, 3: 121-12 (1971)

“Cultural and Social-Psychological Factors in the Study of Survivors of Genocide.” International Behavioral Scientist 3, 2: 48-55 (1971).

“Factors of Anger and Aggression in Genocide.” Journal of Human Relations 19, 3: 394-417 (1971).

“Methodological Components of the Study of Genocide as a Sociological Problem” Recent Studies in Modern Armenian History. Cambridge MA: National Association for Armenian Studies & Research 83-103 (1972).

“Structural-Functional Components of Genocide: A Victimological Approach to the Armenian Case.” in Drapkin, Israel, ed., Victimology: vol. III. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Co. 123-136 (1974).

“Common Features of the Armenian and Jewish Cases of Genocide: A Comparative Victimological Perspective,” in Drapkin, Israel, ed., Victimology: A New Focus, vol. 4, Violence and its Victims. Lexington, MA: D.C. Health and Co. 99-120 (1975).

“A Typology of Genocide.” International Review of Sociology 5, 2: 201-212 (1975).

“Some Determinants of Genocidal Violence in Inter-Group Conflicts with Particular Reference to the Armenian and Jewish Cases.” Sociologus 26, 3: 130-149 (1976).

“The Victimization of the American Indian.” Victimology: An International Journal 1, 4: 513-537 (1976).

“An Attempt at Defining Victimology.” in Viano, Emilio, ed., Victims and Society Washington, D.C.: Visage Press. 40, 2 (1976).

“An Oral Testimony and a Written Analysis of the Sociological Factors Involved in the Armenian Genocide before an American Congressional Panel, along with the Submission of a Set of Policy Recommendations.” in Hearings on Genocide, 94th Congress, Second Session Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office 6-21 (1976).

“The Naim-Andonian Documents on the World War I Destruction of the Ottoman Armenians: The Anatomy of a Genocide.” International Journal for Middle East Studies 18: 311-360 (1986).

“The Role of Turkish Physicians in the World War I Genocide of the Ottoman Armenians.” Holocaust and Genocide Studies 1, 2: 169-192 (1986).

“An Interview with Vahakn N. Dadrian: An Expert on the Armenian Genocide. Conducted by Harry James Cargas.” Social Science Record. Special Issue on Genocide. Issues, Approaches, Resources 24, 2: 23-27 (1987).

“The Anticipation and Prevention of Genocide in International Conflicts. Some Lessons from History.” International Journal of Group Tensions 18, 3: 205 214 (1988).

“The Circumstances Surrounding the 1909 Adana Holocaust.” Armenian Review 41, 4-164: 1-16 (1988).

“The Convergent Aspects of the Armenian and Jewish Cases of Genocide. A Reinterpretation of the Concept of Holocaust.” Holocaust and Genocide Studies 3, 2: 151-169 (1988).

“Genocide as a Problem of National and International Law: The World War I Armenian Case and its Contemporary Legal Ramifications.” Yale Journal of International Law 14, 2: 221-334 (1989).

“Rapports Medicaux Dresses apres l’Examen des Cadavres des Armeniens Massacres dans les Rues d’Istanbul en Septembre 1895.” Union Medical Armenienne de France 56: 10-14 (1990).

“Towards a Theory of Genocide Incorporating the Instance of Holocaust: Comments, Criticisms and Suggestions.” Holocaust and Genocide Studies 5, 2: 129-143 (1990).

“Documentation of the Armenian Genocide in Turkish Sources.” in Charny, Israel W., ed., Genocide: A Critical Bibliographic Review, vol. 2. London: Mansell; New York; Facts on File. 86-138 (1991).

“The Documentation of the World War I Armenian Massacres in the Proceedings of the Turkish Military Tribunal.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 23, 4: 549-576 (1991).

“A Textual Analysis of the Key Indictment of the Turkish Military Tribunal Investigating the Armenian Genocide.” Armenian Review 44, 1-173: 1 36 (1991).

“Von Tatern und Opfern: Der Armenische Volkermord.” Fluchtlings Forum 7,10: 32-34 (1991).

“The Perversion by Turkish Sources of Russian General Mayewski’s Report on the Turko-Armenian Conflict.” Journal of the Society for Armenian Studies 5: 139-152 (1991-1991)

“Ottoman Archives and Denial of the Armenian Genocide.” in Hovannissian, Richard G., ed., The Armenian Genocide: History, Politics, Ethics. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 280-310 (1992).

“The Role of Turkish Military in the Destruction of Ottoman Armenians: A Study in Historical Continuities.” Journal of Political and Military Sociology 20, 2: 257-286 (1992).

“A Twist in the Punishment of Some of the Arch Perpetrators of the Armenian Genocide.” The Armenian Cause 10, 2: 2E-5E (1993).

“The Role of the Special Organization in the Armenian Genocide during the First World War.” in Panayi, P., ed. Minorities in Wartime: National and Racial Groupings in Europe, North America and Australia during the World Wars. Oxford: Berg. 5-82 (1993).

“The Secret Young-Turk Ittihadist Conference and the Decision for the World War I Genocide of the Armenians.” Holocaust and Genocide Studies 7, 2: 173-201 (1993).

“Party Allegiance as a Determinant in the Turkish Military’s Involvement in the World War I Armenian Genocide.” Revue du Monde Armenien Moderne et Contemporain 1, 1: 87-101 (1994).

“The Comparative Aspects of the Armenian and Jewish Cases of Genocide: A Socio-Histori-cal Perspective,” in Rosenbaum, Alan, ed., Is the Holocaust Unique? Boulder, CO: West-view Press, 101-135 (1966).




“Nationalism Communism and Soviet Industrialization. A Theoretical Exposition,” Sociologia Internationalis (Duncker and Hamblot, Berlin) 10, 2 (1972).

“Nationalism in Soviet Armenia – A Case Study of Ethnocentrism,” Naionalism in the USSR and Eastern Europe in the Era of Brezhnev and Kosygin, George W. Simmonds, ed. (Detroit, 1977) 201-258.


“An Apprisal of the Communist Formula, ‘National in Form, Socialist in Content’,” Part 1. Armenian Review 16, 3-63: 3-14 (1963).

“An Appraisal of the Communist Formula, ‘National in Form, Socialist in Content’,” Part II. Armenian Review 16, 4-64: 3-13 (1963).

“Major Patterns of Social and Cultural Changes of Soviet Armenians.” American Philosophical Society 65: 375-379 (1965).

“Sources and Signs of Nationality Unrest.” Problems of Communism 16, 5: 70-71 (1967).

“An Interpretation of the Address to the Central Committee of the Communist Party Of the Soviet Union.” Armenian Review 20, 1-77: 64-78 (1967).

“The Events of April 24 in Moscow.” Armenian Review 21, 2-78: 9-26 (1967).

“The Karabagh Issue.” Armenian Review 21, 3-83: 57-84 (1968).

“The Development of the Soviet Posture on Nationalities – A Review of the Roles of Lenin and Stalin.” Indian Sociological Bulletin 6, 11: 18-38 (1968).

“Inter-Ethnic Conflicts in the Soviet Transcaucasus.” International Review of History and Political Science 6, 2: 79-92 (1969).

“National Communism – A Soviet Dilemma.” Political Scientist 6, 1-2: 13-20 (1970).

“Industrialization and Recent Trends of the Ethnocentrism in Armenia.” Ukrainian Quarterly 38, 1 (1972).

Translations from Soviet Armenian Intellectual-Activists

“National Vaingloriousness and National Self-Respect.” (A speech delivered at the recent 5th Congress of the Union of Soviet Armenian Writers by Barouyr Sevag.) Armenian Review 20, 3-79: 43-50 (1967).

“An Appeal to the Armenians Throughout the World.” (An essay by Soviet Armenian poet Hovannes Sheeraz.) Armenian Review 20, 3-79: 51-56 (1967).

“Who if Not Us and When if Not Right Now.” (A speech delivered by Kevork Emin at the 5th Congress of the Union of Soviet Armenian Writers.) Armenian Review 20, 4-80: 19-27 (1967).

“On Attaining a Medium-Range Image on National Character.” (by Soviet Armenian editor of the literary monthly, Karoun, Vartkes Bedrosyan). Armenian Review 20, 4-80: 27-34 (1967).



“Kant’s Concepts of ‘Human Nature’ and ‘Rationality’: Two Arch Determinants of an Envisioned ‘Eternal Peace’.” Journal of Peace Research 22, 2 82: 57-64 (1968). 5, 4: 396-401 (1968).

“The Britannica on the Armenian Atrocities.” Armenian Review 22,2-82: 57 64 (1968).

“Recent Trends in Sociology in the U.S.A.” Annali Di Sociologia 6: 23-31 (1969).

“Affluence as a Key Factor in American Sociology.” International Review of History and Political Science 7,1: 23-34 (1970).

“The Cyprus Episode: Some Lessons from Turkish History.” Journal of the Hellenic Diaspora 2, 1:36-2 (1975).

“The Relationship of Subcultures to Individual Motivations of Drug Use. A Review of the Case of Marihuana.” Annali Di Sociologia 7: 23-30 (1971).

Digest of Abstracts
Armenian Research Institute of Scientific and Technical Information (ArmNIINTI)


1995 History of Armenian Refugees Settlements: Final Report / In-te of History of Acad. of Sciences; Supervisor of studies V. A. Mikaelian – 1995, 13p.

The principal peculiarity of Armenian people history is that it is practically the history of Armenian emigration and Armenian refugees’ communities. The point is that without serious study of Armenian emigration history it’s impossible to embrace the whole history of Armenian people, its cultural inheritance, and culture which beginning from XI-XIII centuries BC to the new times, had great importance in Armenian migration communities. The above-cited explains why so many serious research works concerning Armenian refugees communities’ history have been widely developed for the last years. History of Armenian Problem Genocide of Armenians, and Russian and Armenian Relations: Final Report / In-te of History of Acad. of Sciences; Supervisor of studies M. G. Nersesian – 1995, 6p.

The following subjects have been studied: 1. History of Armenian problem. 2. Armenian problem and Germany of the end of XIX century and the beginning of XX century. 3. Slaughter of Armenians of 1919-1922 (Digest of documents). Demographic problems in XVIII-XIX centuries: conservative movement in 1880-90 in Western Armenia. “Genocide of Armenians of 1915-1916, Bibliography”. “German and Turkish Sources about Genocide of Armenians” (digest of articles, 1995). “Russian sources about Genocide of Armenians”. Formation of Armenian People and State Organization in Armenia: Final Report / In-te of History of Acad. of Sciences; Supervisor of studies E. L. Danielian – 1995, 6p.

Armenian state system is one of the most ancient in history of human civilization. It was formed in the territory of Armenian plateau, as a highest principle of Armenian people, as well as social, political and cultural development of Armenian society formation. Our ancient thinkers perceived it exactly that way. Ideological comprehension of Armenian state system, struggle against foreign yoke and ideology, phylosophical perception of society development are the principal methods for theoretical perception of ancient history of Armenia. Information from external sources were verified on the basis of Armenian primary sources. Such methodology allows to consider the history of Armenia together with its ethnic roots in the system of countries of Asia Minor. In these studies Armenia is considered as a main part of Indoeuropean prime homeland, and in this connection have been found answers in such areas of historiography as politics, sociology culture. Taking into account that Armenian people are aboriginals, there is a possibility to consider spiritual and ethnic roots of Armenian state system’s origin. History of First Republic of Armenia (1918-1920): Final Report / In-te of History of Acad. of Sciences; Supervisor of studies G. A. Avetisian – 1995, 6p.

On the basis of discovered new documents have been illuminated some problems of social, economical, cultural life, political parties’ activity, internal policy of Armenia in 1918-1920. Armenian National and Liberation Movements in XIXc. and in the Beginning of XXc.: Final Report / In-te of History of Acad. of Sciences; Supervisor of studies A. S. Ambarian – 1995, 6p.

In 1992-1995 the following works have been studied: colonial policy of czarism in Eastern Armenia in XIXc. and the beginning of XXc., diaries of Yeremia and Aristakes Tevakants, political parties’ activity, national and liberation movements in Eastern Armenia in 1900-1914, social and political activities of Mkrtich Khrimian, national and liberation movements in Kilikia at the end of XIX and beginning of XX century, Armenian-Turkish cultural relations at the end of XIXc., and main problems about the liberation of western Armenians illuminated in “Armenia” newspaper (1885-1905). Demographic Processes in Eastern Armenia in XIXc. and at the Beginning of XXc.: Final Report / In-te of History of Acad. of Sciences; Supervisor of studies S. Kh. Alexanian – 1995, 6p.

On the basis of archives, statistical and published materials have been analyzed by main lines some aspects of stormy demographic processes in XIXc., beginning from 1992. A special consideration has been given to the economical, political, socio-psychological and cultural consequences of demographic changes stipulated by ethnic processes. Such problems, having political significance, as ethnic movements in both parts of Armenia, as a result of Russian-Persian and Russian-Turkish wars of XIX century, their principal prerequisites, tendencies of demographical process at the end of XIX-beginning of XX centuries, have been considered as well. Political Social-economical Life and Culture of Armenia in 1920-1941: Final Report / In-te of History of Acad. of Sciences; Supervisor of studies V. N. Kazakhetzian – 1995, 8p.

Principles of chronology and importance are in the basis of this work covering prewar (1920-1941) period in Armenia. In first section are covered years from 1920 to 1922, when Armenia was an independent Republic. In the second section is covered period of 1922-1941 when Armenia became a part of Soviet Union. In first two decades Armenia had some achievements in the areas of economy and culture. But agriculture was in bad condition. The vast masses of the population were subject to repression in 1930ies. The purpose of this work – truthful illumination of Soviet Armenia history in prewar years. Armenians in Social, Economical, Political and Cultural Life of Near East and Middle East: Final Report / In-te of Oriental Studies of Acad. of Sciences; Supervisor of studies L. G. Danegian – 1995, 7p.

Some areas of history and culture of Armenian community of Iran in XVII-XIX c. have been studied: a) Armenians in cultural life of Iran (XVII-XVIIIc.); b) Armenian community of Iran at the end of XIX-beginning of XX c.; c) “Daily Diary” of Eghia Musheghian. “Annals of cultural life of New Djuga” – rich source for study of history and culture of Armenian and Iranian peoples. Historical Geography and Historical Ethnography: Final Report / Yerevan State Un-ty; Supervisor of studies B. A. Harutunian – 1995, 17p.

The work was carried-out in two directions. First work – preparation of “History Atlas of Eastern Armenia” consisting of 40 maps. Atlas will illuminate political, economical and cultural life of eastern parts of Armenia (Artsakh, Utik) from ancient times to the origin and development of Republic of Nagorni Karabakh. The other work – “Vilayet Van in 1840-1917″ – historical, geographical and demographical research. In this work the administrative, political development and demographical movement of one of densely populated with Armenians territories of Western Armenia – Van – Vaspurakan. Both works have great scientific and political importance. Problems of Political History of Osman Empire: Final Report / In-te of Oriental Studies of Acad. of Sciences; Supervisor of studies R. G. Sahakian – 1995, 9p.

Principal problems of Osman Empire’s New History (XIX-beginning of XX c.) have been studied: reformatory movement in Turkey, its ideology, process of development, peculiarities of different stages and status of Christian nations. These problems have been illuminated in a new manner. By critical and analytical method and with scientific impartiality have been considered interrelations between ideological leaders of formed Turkish nation and other nations-citizens of Turkey, and their attempts for cooperation. Were elucidated activities and policy of Turkish reformators holding power in the country, their relations with “mladoturks”. The consequences in Armenians’ fortune after a political treaty concluded by Turkey in above-cited period have been commented in a new manner. Peculiarities of Social and Political Development of Turkey in 1980 ties: Final Report / In-te of Oriental Studies of Acad. of Sciences; Supervisor of studies R. A. Safrastian – 1995, 7p.

The study of modern history of Turkey is of great scientific and political importance. Sharp switches in policy and social life in Turkey are the result of ruling party’s policy. The goal of this policy – to make prowestern the economical and political system of Turkey. The principle of this policy – depreciation of government role and improvement of the personality as prerequisites for the development of free market relations. Practically, an attempt has been made to give a new breathing to the process of europeanization of Turkey. The same problem now experiences the Republic of Armenia. Thus, the experience of Turkey has an actual significance for us. Panturkist ideas and new transformations, in particular, the study of Turks’ unity doctrine, are of interest as well. In this work have been analysed the internal policy of Turkey during these years, main events-military coup d’etat in 1980, its consequences, adoption of a new Constitution, origin of new political parties, universal Parliamentary elections in 1983 and accession to power of “Motherland” party. In this work have been considered as well the activity of organizations and periodicals of Panturkist direction, activization in Turkey of islamists, especially “Refa” party.

1996 History of Social and Political Idea of Armenian Diaspora: Final Report / Department of History and Culture of Armenian Communities of Diaspora; Supervisor of studies K. L. Dallakian – 1996, 8p.

This subject covers the whole period of formation of Armenian Diaspora (1920- till today). In this work has been studied and summarized an information material covering 20-30-ties, has been realized a cartography of demographical displacements. Annotation of published works of Armenian diaspora in English, as well as annotation of published documents in Armenian diaspora concerning social and political situation in the Republic of Armenia of today, have been prepared as a subsidiary material for further studies. The main subject of these studies-courses of social life and idea, specific for transition period of diaspora, interrelations of these courses, problems of correlation of Armenians of Diaspora with adopted culture, the importance of “Armenia – Diaspora” connection for the creation and strengthening of national self-consciousness.

1997 Nakhidjevan in 1917-1921. History of Armenians Deportation and Seizure of this Area from Armenia: Final Report / Yerevan State Un-ty; Supervisor of studies E. A. Zograbian – 1997.

A work on book, concerning policy of Turkey, Azerbaijan and Iran, regarding Nakhidjevan district history of Nakhidjevan Armenians’ deportation, and seizure of this district from Armenia, has been completed. A significant part of this book has been assigned to kemalists activities on Moscow (February-March of 1921) and Kars (September-October of 1921) conferences.

Biography of Rober M. Gates- The new Secretary of Defense-

November 9, 2006

Dr. Robert M. Gates was President of Texas A&M University from 2002 until its nomination as Secretary of Defense following the 2006 Mid-term elections. Gates served as Interim Dean of the George Bush School of Government and Public Service at Texas A&M from 1999-2001.

He served as Director of Central Intelligence from 1991 until 1993. Gates is the only career officer in CIA’s history to rise from entry-level employee to Director. He served as Deputy Director of Central Intelligence from 1986 until 1989 and as Assistant to the President and Deputy National Security Adviser at The White House from January 20, 1989 until November 6, 1991 for President George H.W. Bush.

Gates joined the Central Intelligence Agency in 1966 and spent nearly 27 years as an intelligence professional, serving six presidents. During that period, he spent nearly nine years at the National Security Council, The White House, serving four presidents of both political parties.

He is the author of the memoir, From the Shadows: The Ultimate Insider’s Story of Five Presidents and How They Won the Cold War, published in 1996.

A native of Kansas, Gates received his bachelor’s degree from the College of William and Mary, his master’s degree in history from Indiana University, and his doctorate in Russian and Soviet history from Georgetown University.

Gates was member of the Baker-Hamilton commission on Iraq, expected to release its findings in the next days. He also co-chaired another study group that, as the Iraq Commission, called for a new approach towards Iran, centered on selective engagement with Teheran.

Percentage of Muslim population in the European Union

November 9, 2006

EU member state 


Muslim population            

Percentage of Muslim population

Austria                  8.208.000                        372.800                          4.2 %
Belgium                  10.457.000                       382.870                           3.7 %
Cyprus                    762.000                          210.000                         22 %
Czech Rep.               10.239.000                        200.000-300.000                  2-3%

Denmark                  5.419.000                         151.500                           2.8 %       

Estonia                  1.341.000                          5.000-10.000                    0.36-0.72 %

France                   62.095.000                         5.000.000                        8.1 %

Finland                  5.246.000                           21.000                           0.4 %

Germany                 82.583.000                          3.400.000                        3.9 %

Greece                   11.085.000                          372.600                          3.5 %

Great Britain            59.754.000                          1.591.000                       2.7 %  

Hungary                   10.064.000                         3.000                            0.02 %                                   

Ireland                   4.177.000                          10.000                           0.2 %                

Italy                     58.344.000                          705.000                          1.2 %

Latvia                    2.306.000                           3.000                            0.12 %

Lithuania                 3.423.000                           7.000                             1.9 %

Luxembourg                 462.000                             7.500                            1.6 %

Malta                       404.000                           3.000                              0.8 %

Netherlands                 16.338.000                         750.628                           4.6 %

Poland                      38.091.000                         4.000                             0.005 %

Portugal                   10.609.000                          40.000                             0.4 %

Slovakia                    5.380.000                           10.829                            0.2 %

Slovenia                    1.998.000                           30.247                            1.6 %

Spain                       41.545.000                          402.000                            1.0 %

Sweden                      9.077.000                           305.500                            3.4 %

Source: ZEI Institute – Germany

Note: The current statistics exclude illegal immigrants and student population

List of naval marine industries in the U.K

November 9, 2006

Aeronautical & General Instruments Ltd
Design and manufacture of naval speed logs and marine instrumentation.   
  Aish Technologies Ltd
Design and manufacture of electronic and electro mechanical systems.   
  Allied Marine Services
Services for UK marine companies wishing to enter the US marine and off-shore markets   
  Babcock Engineering Services
Repair, refit, fabrication and commissioning of naval vessels.   
  Babcock Infrastructure Services
Enabling customers to reduce cost of ownership   
  Babcock International Group PLC
Babcock International is a London-listed support services company   
  Babcock Naval Services
Partnering contract with the Ministry of Defence   
  BAE Systems Advanced Technology Centre
Provide Stealth & EMI materials for RCS reduction & EMI Equipment Enhancement on Nava   
  BAE Systems Integrated System Technologies (Insyte)
  BAE Systems Naval Ships (Govan)
 BAE Systems Naval Ships (Scotstoun)
  BAE Systems Plc
Prime contracting: warship design and build specialists.   
  BAE Systems Submarine Business
The submarine business unit is a key component of BAE SYSTEMS naval activities.   
  BAE Systems Underwater Systems Divison
UK expertise within BAE Systems and a market leader in underwater warfare.   
  Baltic Exchange
International shipping exchange. Focus on bulk shipping and shipbroking.   
  BMT Defence Services Ltd
Independent design, technical support and management services in the defence sector   
  BMT Limited
Engineering and technology consultancy   
  BMT Nigel Gee and Associates Ltd
Naval Architects for High Speed and Novel Ships and Boats   
  BMT Reliability Consultants Ltd
To reduce your risk and improve reliability, safety and through life economics.   
  BMT SeaTech Limited
Consultancy providing services & products in vessel performance, safety, compliance   

 Burness Corlett – Three Quays
Ship design and marine consultancy to the commercial, luxury yacht, defence and offsh   
  CAE Inc
Name changed   
  Chesterfield Special Cylinders Ltd
A range of seamless steel high pressure cylinders for the storage of gases.   
  Clarksons Research Services Ltd
shipbroking, chartering, research and consultancy   
  Claverham Ltd
Specialised actuation systems and equipment; defence and civil sectors   
  Cliff Funnell Associates
Management & Marketing Consultancy, and R&D Programme Management   
  Corrintec Ltd
Corrintec is a division of Cathelco Ltd   
  Cosalt International Ltd
A diverse industrial logistics prime contractor. Marine safety, rope and MoD products   
  David Brown Engineering Ltd
Designers & manufacturers of main propulsion gearing & ancillary equipment.   
  DMI Young & Cunningham

 FCX Truflo Marine Ltd
The name changed to Truflo Marine Ltd   
  First Marine International
A leading international maritime consultancy.   
  Guidance Navigation Ltd
Guidance Navigation is a leading manufacturer of sophisticated industrial laser   
  Hamworthy plc
Solutions for all types of merchant and naval vessels and offshore.   
  Hepworth Marine International
Total Quality – Total Performance – Windscreen Wiper Systems   
  Imes Ltd
Providers of specialist engineering products, systems and services.   
  Imtech Marine & Offshore Ltd
Imtech, The Powerful Force in Marine Technology   
  Institute of Marine Engineering, Science and Technology (IMarEST)
International professional marine membership organisation.   
  iXSea Ltd
  Kadoke Display UK
supply the concept and realisation for Tradeshow and Event communication   

 Kelvin Hughes Ltd
Radar & navigational systems, navigational data, paper & electronic charts, books   
  Kempsafe Ltd
Manufacturer of marine catering and laundry equipment.   
  Kent Modular Electronics Limited
Manufacturer of an ever-growing range of Innovative Marine Display Solutions.   
  L-3 Communications Marine Systems UK Limited
Systems for integrated control of warship platform machinery and systems.   
  Lloyd’s Register EMEA
Design, appraisal, construction survey, classification of ships   
  Lockheed Martin STASYS Limited
High quality consultancy to public and private ports and maritime sector clients   
  MacTaggart, Scott & Co Ltd
Design and manufacture of hydraulically powered handling systems   
  Marine Partners
Marketing, business development and technical support for the shipping industry   
  Marine Shield Ltd
Manufacturers and designers of ‘escape route protection’ systems   
  Maritime London
Promotional body to maintain and enhance London as the maritime capital of the world   
  McMurdo Ltd
Manufacture a complete range of electronic safety and communications equipment.   
  MSC (Europe) Ltd
  Northern Defence Industries Ltd
An alliance of 100 companies forming a centre of engineering excellence.   
  Orkot Marine Bearings
Bearing materials for Marine applications.   
  P G Products Ltd
Designers and manufacturers of SOLAS and Ships Wheel Fireman’s Outfits.   
  Pickup Bellows Ltd
Pickup Bellows Ltd are manufacturers of the Thermosel brand   
  Planet Ocean Ltd
Marine Scientific Research Equipment.   
  PSM Instrumentation Ltd
Tank level gauging transmitters and monitoring & control systems.   
  QinetiQ Ltd
Consultancy, test and assessment, defence technology transfer   
  Radamec Control Systems Ltd
UK manufacturer of electronic controls, alarm/monitoring equipment and support produc   
 Railko Ltd
Railko designs, engineers & manufactures composite marine bearings.   
  Raytheon Systems Ltd
Design, develop and manufacture of advance electronic products and systems.   
  Reed Spearhead Exhibitions
Organises exhibitions and conferences   
  Rolls-Royce Plc
The widest range of marine products from a single supplier.   
  Roplan Ltd
Design and manufacture of rotating seals and mag. drive mixers.   
  Royal Institution of Naval Architects
A learned society in the field of naval architecture and marine technology.   
  Royston Marine Ltd
Specialists in the overhaul of diesel engines.   
  Sea Vision UK
The national campaign to promote the wider maritime sector and raise awareness   
  Solar Solve Marine
Specialist anti-glare sunscreens and fabric roller blinds for ships.   
  Somers Forge Ltd
One of the leading open die forgemasters in Europe.   

 Systems Engineering & Assessment Ltd (SEA)
An applied technology systems and software consultancy   
  TEAMtalk Satellite Ltd
Newspapers for ships and e-mail compression software.   
  Thales Avionics Ltd
Provide cockpit avionics, inflight entertainment products & utility systems   
  Thales Information Systems
Deliver a range of services from consultancy to systems integration & outsourcing   
  Thales Land & Joint Systems (Air & Naval CNI)
Provide advanced information & communications products, systems & services   
  Thales Naval Ltd
Global electronics company serving Defence & Information Systems worldwide   
  Thales Naval Systems
Design, development, supply and support of sonars and related systems.   
  Thales Optronics Ltd
Offer range of optronic products & services to government & commercial customers   
  Thales Research & Technology (UK) Ltd
  The Nautical Institute
A professional body promoting high standards of competence and knowled   
 Truflo Marine Ltd
Manufacturer of valves and actuators for ships and submarines.   
  UK Hydrographic Office
World leaders in hydrographic affairs.   
  VT Group plc
  VT Halmatic Ltd
  VT Marine Products
Formerly known as Hydraulic Power Division (HPD)   
  VT Marine Services
Specialist marine services.   
  VT Naval Support
VT Naval Support (VTNS), providing quality support in the UK Ministry of Defence   
  VT Shipbuilding Ltd
Shipbuilding (esp. naval) , support services, and marine products.   
  Weir Strachan & Henshaw
Weapon handling and launch systems equipment design and manufacture   
  Whippendell Marine
Designers and manufacturers of electrical & electronic control systems and components 
 Wichita Co Ltd
Manufacturer of pneumatically and hydraulically applied friction clutches and brakes.   
  Wozair Ltd
World Wide Leaders in the Design and Manufacture of Fire Dampers for the Marine Marke   
  WS Atkins Consultants Ltd
Technologically-based consultancy and support services; ports and maritime interests.   
  Wynn Marine Ltd
The world’s premier supplier of marine window wiper systems.   
  York International
Heating, ventilating, air conditioning and refigerations equipment.   

Biography of Rt Hon Gordon Brown MP -Chancellor of the Exchequer-

November 8, 2006

Gordon Brown was appointed as Chancellor of the Exchequer on 2 May 1997. He has been the MP for Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath since 2005 and was the MP for Dunfermline East from 1983 to 2005.  He was Opposition spokesperson on Treasury and Economic Affairs (Shadow Chancellor) from 1992.

Mr Brown was born in 1951 and educated at Kirkcaldy High School and Edinburgh University where he gained 1st Class Honours and then a Doctorate. He was Rector of Edinburgh University and Chairman of the University Court between 1972 and 1975. From 1976 to 1980, Mr Brown lectured at Edinburgh University and then Caledonian University before taking up a post at Scottish TV (1980 – 1983).

After becoming an MP, Mr Brown was the Chair of the Labour Party Scottish Council (1983 – 1984). Before becoming Shadow Chancellor he held two other senior posts on the Opposition front bench – Shadow Chief Secretary to the Treasury (1987 – 1989) and Shadow Trade and Industry Secretary (1989 -1992).

Mr Brown has had a number of works published including Maxton, The Politics of Nationalism and Devolution and Where There is Greed. He has edited a number of books including John Smith: Life and Soul of the Party and Values, Visions and Voices.

Outside of work, Mr Brown`s interests include football, tennis and film.

Climate change and water resources in the Mediterranean

November 8, 2006

The Mediterranean region, a rich and fragile mosaic of landscapes and ecosystems host one of
the richest biodiversity of the world. Water resources availability is becoming a hot topic for the
region as the consumption levels are exceeding water resources availability. This trend
associated to the global warming will lead to the unsteadiness of sensitive ecosystems of the
Mediterranean that would add disparity between northern and southern countries.
Spain owns the European record figure of dead people due to floods between 1990-2000 with
losses over 200 millions euros per year.
Because of the threat posed to ecosystems and people by climate change, IUCN, is not only
promoting mitigation of the greenhouse effect gas, but is also developing adaptation
strategies so that water resources can be preserved.

Mounting evidence in the Mediterranean, a threat for water resources
Climate change is here and will be with us for a long time to come. It will have a significant
impact on water resources and their management. Along the last decade, the direct impacts of
climate change registered in the Mediterranean basin consist in lower levels of precipitations, a
modification of the intensity and distribution of the precipitations, an increase of floods and a
raise of temperatures. One emerging response can be defined: Water professionals and
societies will need to adapt to climate change
In a short and long term view, Climate change will amplify its substantial destabilizing effect on
the hydrological cycle and will have a pervasive influence on the future demand, supply and
quality of fresh water resources in the region. It will add pressure on water and environment
resources and coastal systems currently under stress. In the Mediterranean, water resources
represent the most precious goods especially for the southern countries; the combination of the
aridity of the region with climate change impacts will particularly threat ecosystems processes,
natural resources and communities.

Status of fresh water resources in the Mediterranean

Fresh water resources in the Mediterranean are under increasing pressure in terms of both
quantity and quality.
§ Northern Mediterranean countries with higher, more regular rainfall also face
climate-induced natural hazards, flooding and water shortages in basins susceptible
to periodic drought. As a consequence, human and natural systems sensitive to
water availability and water quality are increasingly stressed, or coming under
threat. Those countries will have to face water quality degradation and meet the
increasing needs of environmental protection and restoration.
§ In South and East Mediterranean counties where utilization is now approaching
hydrological limits, and the combined effects of demographic growth, increased
economic activity and improved standards of living have increased competition for
remaining resources. Water resources are already overexploited or are becoming
so with likely future aggravation where demographic growth is strong. The Eastern
countries will be more sensitive to short term or structural shortages, in certain
Mediterranean vulnerability to climate change
Many events associated to climate change threat the balance of the Mediterranean
ecosystems. The projected impacts of climate change will create a greater variability and
extreme weather events, wetter winters and drier summers and hotter summers and heat
The changes in temperatures and in precipitations levels and distribution will directly affect
the water demand, quality and watershed. Pollution will be intensified by runoff in
catchments and from urban areas. Rivers will have lower flows particularly in summer, and
the sea temperature, salinity and concentration in CO2, nitrates and phosphates will also be
affected. The most visible impact will be the floods which will be higher and more frequent.
The changes in the frequency of extreme events might be the first and most important
change registered in the Mediterranean. That will directly impact the vulnerability of the
poorest countries.
Floods are the most common type of natural hazard in the Mediterranean region, after the
earthquakes: only in the last decades all the Mediterranean countries had to defend from
some massive flood and its associated catastrophic effects.
The case of Algeria

Algeria is the largest country in the Maghreb region. In this country the significant exposure
to recurring natural hazards (e.g., floods, earthquake, drought) emphasises the vulnerability
of the poor population because of the recurring social, financial and economic losses.
Algerian urban environment is characterised by rapid urbanisation and environmental
degradation. Poor or non-existent drainage, water supply, sanitation, sewer and solid waste
disposal systems, further enhance the deterioration and destabilisation of buildings and
infrastructure. Deforestation, the elimination of vegetation cover, due to uncontrolled and
often illegal development has contributed to further erosion, thus increasing hazard
exposure. On November 2001, severe rains accompanied by floods and mud-flows affected
fourteen villages in the northern part of Algeria. The disaster caused the loss of about 900
lives, approximately 95 percent of which occurred in the capital of Algiers (specifically in the
Oued Koriche catchment area). Damage and loss of property were considerable across
sectors, amounting to about US$300 million (according to the Government sources). Since
this disaster, there is a new way of thinking about flood disaster management in Algeria,
particularly in urban areas.

How climate change will affect water resources?

Healthy ecosystems are fundamentally dependent on receiving appropriate amounts of
water, of a certain quality, at certain times – either as river flows, groundwater, or a
combination. Climate change will put additional pressures on stressed ecosystems.
§ As a result of the temperature warming, the water demand will increase. The
evaporation from water bodies will reduce the available supply and the increased
evapotranspiration from crops and natural vegetation as well as the water demand for
irrigation or industrial cooling systems will add pressure on water resources.
§ Water quality will be affected by higher runoff which will increase pollution due to
agriculture chemicals and less capacity to assimilate pollution with lower flows. The
intensification of rainfall will primarily be responsible for soil erosion, leaching of
agricultural chemicals and runoff of urban and livestock wastes and nutrients into water
§ Watershed conditions will suffer from erosion and desertification processes due to
hotter and dryer summers, more frequent and prolonged droughts coupled with rainfall
events. The higher temperatures would dry soils and increase salinization and generate
a higher incidence of wind-blown soil erosion.

Adaptation: the IUCN response to climate change
Although governments and businesses are starting to take responsibility for their
emissions, we are now past the point where the warming of the Earth can be avoided.
Worse still, the emissions reductions that have been agreed so far are too modest to
have any significant impact on the warming trend. Since we cannot prevent all climate
change, we must attempt to adapt to it. While more aggressive reductions in greenhouse
gas emissions are undoubtedly needed, effective and efficient sustainable development
depends upon climate change adaptation becoming a part of natural resource policy and
practice. We need to adopt an adaptive management style adjusting our actions based
on learning.
IUCN has developed 3 possible strategies for addressing climate change in the
Mediterranean region.
Reducing the risk to hydrological variability and floods
An increase in the occurrence of floods, droughts and other extreme weather events due
to climate change poses a considerable threat to national economies and sustainable
By reinforcing flood and drought preparedness programmes, introducing management
measure to regulate runoff, erosion and sediment and by modifying infrastructure to cope
safely and perform in higher floods, water managers will reduce the risk to hydrological
variability. One other interesting tool could be the increasing of infiltration and capacity of
urban storm water systems which play a major role when floods occur.

Closing the demand-supply gap in water resources
In the Mediterranean water demand now exceeds or threatens to outstrip sustainable
levels of supply by overstepping the renewable levels of ground water resources. This put
under pressure the ecosystems of the region which will particularly impact the livelihoods
of Mediterranean societies.
Some possible responses can consist in introducing greater flexibility to allocate between
competing demands and matching water quality with demand , optimizing existing water
regulation infrastructure (operations and retrofit) to most efficient uses and ongoing
changes in water allocation priorities. A better balance between efficiency measures
(recycling, conservation) and new supply measures (through water harvesting and
desalinisation) as well as a combination of two possible water sources (surface water and
ground water) would constitute other ways to bridge the demand supply gap in water

Balancing human and nature needs

Protection and restoration of ecosystems that provide critical land and water resources
and services are urgently needed to maintain and restore natural capacities that support
the protection of people and assets against increased climate variability and extreme
It will be necessary for example to introduce policies that recognise environment needs in
water allocation, to recognize and sustain ecological services from rivers and wetlands
(e.g. for ground water recharge and water purification) and to adapt minimum
environmental flows provisions (surface and ground water) to the seasons and to the
water cycle in wetlands.
IUCN action to address climate change at the global and local levels

In 2002, five regional dialogues have been held in Central America, Southern Africa,
West Africa, South and Southeast Asia, and the Mediterranean. These dialogues looked at
the need for and possible elements of an analytical framework to address climate change
in the context of managing adverse impacts on water resources and wetlands systems in
each region. Adaptation Here it was envisaged that key information needs would be
Climate change adaptation options would be identified and evaluated in the context of
sustainable management of water resources and projections for climate change.
The adaptation frameworks for action would include steps that could be undertaken by
NGOs, the private sector, community organizations and government agencies and
Examples of actions to adapt to climate change in the Mediterranean

In Greece, the government has begun to inform farmers about the potential impacts of
climate change. In France, drought preparedness and prevention schemes are part of the
legal framework on water resources development. The French government is also seeking
to speed up the implementation of plans for the prevention of risks and to improve flood
warning systems. Upstream measures such as reforestation are being implemented to
prevent floods as part of catchment management. Morocco has taken steps to increase
the number of wastewater plants and wetlands protection measures to reduce current
vulnerability to water scarcity. In Italy, actions linked to the 2002 Environmental action
strategy have focused on three priorities – water conservation, water quality, and
sustainable water pricing. In Cyprus, measures have been implemented to increase the
efficiency of water supply and develop non-conventional sources of water, such as
desalination, which now makes up more than 10% of fresh water supply. Spain launched
a plan for Forest Hydrology Restoration for which actions on soil degradation can be
carried out in order to recover the ecological functions of forests soils in water cycle.

The means of identifying and implementing measures in action programmes would be based on
principles of dialogue and partnership between government, business, civil society and water
users at all three levels. Collaborative processes are required between the different sectors
In most Mediterranean countries, institutional coordination mechanisms are already in place
that could be used to initiate national level processes. These include the focal points for
UNFCC (United Nations Framework Convention of Climate Change) or IPCC
(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) responses and Ramsar, as well as
interdepartmental panels or working groups, and in some cases, Commissions that have
already established to study and coordinate responses to climate change issues.
One clear message from the Mediterranean dialogue is the longer this
task is left unattended in the Mediterranean, the more costly and
disruptive it may be for society and the environment. Small changes now
can make a huge difference over time, as the beneficial effects
Source: IUCN

Stats on the new Norwegian Frigate “Roald Amundsen”

November 7, 2006

The Spanish yard Navantia recently delivered the first of five F-310 type frigates to the Norwegian Navy.

Type: Frigate

Owner: Royal Norwegian Navy

Builder: Navantia, Spain

Length: 123.5 metres

Depth to main deck: 9.5 metres

Beam: 16.8 metres

Full load displacement: 5,130 Tn

Main engines: GE LM2500 GAS TURBINE, 21,500kW at 3,600 rpm, 2xIzar/Caterpillar engines, 4,500 kW at 1,000 rpm

Propulsion: 2 x 5 bladed CPP, diameter 4.20 metres

Thrusters: Retraclable azimuth bow thrusters, 1,000 kW

Sonar: TUS Spherion MRS 2000, hull-mounted

Towing array system: TUS/KDA CAPTAS MKII V1

Radar: Lockheed Martin 3D, AN/SPY-1F radars, Litton S-Band surface radar, 2 x Litton  X Band navigation radars

Illuminators: 2xKDA TIS

Underwater telephone system: KDA UT2000

Bathithermograph: KDA SIPPICAN MK-48 E

Crew: 146

Source: Navantia-Spain

Italy’s Nucleo Operativo Centrale di Sicurezza

November 7, 2006

The Nucleo Operativo Centrale di Sicurezza, or NOCS is Italian National Police unit responsible for executing high-risk interventions, such as the arrest of dangerous fugitives, the rescue of hostages, and conducting counterrorist operations. The unit is composed special intervention teams that are equipped with specialized weapons and equipment. NOCS is capable of rapidly deploying throughout Italy by land, sea and air.
Since its inception in 1978, the unit has carried out over 4,850 special operations and protection tasks which have resulted in 234 arrests. NOCs has also participated in 17 interventions leading to the release of 323 hostages and the arrest of 38 kidnappers.

With the increased rise in international terrorism, during the early 70′s, the Italian government came to the realization that its current security forces were ill prepared to battle this new threat. As a result, in 1974 the Chief of the Anti terrorism Bureau of the Polizia de Stato (State Police), Emilio Santillo, announced the necessity of establishing a specialized police tactical unit with the capability to arrest known terrorists and provide support to the local Anti terrorist Bureau field offices.
The initial team, named the “Anti-commando Unit”, consisted of 35 men who were selected from the “Gold Flames” Police Sports Group who, and was commanded by Maj. Andrea Scandurra. After completing their initial one year training course , which included instruction in high-speed driving, firearms, and a tactical assaults, the unit was declared operational in 1975. They immediately commenced operations against the left wing terrorist organization known as “NAP” (Proletarian Armed Nucleus).

In the following years the unit conducted operations against the right wing group “New Order”, which resulted in the arrests of two known terrorists, Gentile Schiavone and Pierluigi Concutelli. In 1977, the Italian Government felt the need to reorganize the structure of security services to streamline operations and improve operational capabilities. This reorganization resulted in the formation of the Military Intelligence Security Service (SISMI), Democratic Intelligence Security Service (SISDE), and the Central Office for General Investigations and Special Operations (UCIGOS). UCIGOS became responsible for conducting Italian police anti terrorism and countertrrorist activities. The police Anti-commando Unit was redesignated the Nucleo Operativo Centrale di.

Sicurezza (Central Operational Security Nucleus), and assigned to the newly formed UCIGOS as its tactical arm. Due to its new responsibilities, NOCS was authorized to expanded its ranks and new unit personnel were recruited

In January, 1982, NOCS executed what is probably it’s best known, and most publicized operation. US Army Brigadier General James Dozier was kidnapped by Italian Red Brigades terrorists, while on his way to work. The terrorist held him hostage in a small apartment in Padua, and planned to execute him if their demands were not met. Using information gained by US special intelligence units, aggressive interrogation of suspects in Italian custody, and help form Mafioso informants, Italian law enforcement officials were able to narrow Gen. Dozier’s location to a small apartment. Using the noise of near by construction site to mask their movements, a 10-man team of NOCS operators, dressed in civilian clothing, and operating under the command of Capt. Edoardo stormed into the apartment freeing Dozier before his captors could kill him.
In the following years NOCS expanded in size and capabilities and under new CO, then Maj. Maurizio Genolini, the unit became a full fledged CT unit, with capabilities of operations against aircraft, train, bus, Embassy and Soccer Stadium and established very good relations with several CT units in the western world.

NOCS has once again undergone a reorganization, and become the Special Operations Division of Anti-terrorism. The unit enhanced its C3I capabilities, and added a computer and video section to its roster. NOCS was at the forefront regarding the incorporation of computers into its training. NOCS has also improved its training in VIP protection and defensive driving, augmenting its training in these areas with assistance from the US Secret Service (USSS). This relationship has resulted in the formation of a unit similar in function to the USSS Counter Assault Team (CAT). Although VIP protection is not one of NOCS primary missions, they have been tasked with performing close protection duties when high profile personalities visit Italy.

Currently, NOCS is composed of approximately 100 men divided into three counter terrorist (CT) teams and one Protection Detail. The unit also maintains a Logistics Branch with specialized personnel who operate in support of operatives.

Prospective NOCS operators are drawn from the ranks of experienced National Police officers. They must successfully pass the units initial physical and psychological screening. Those who pass this phase then undertake a six month basic training program. During the initial training phase, students are provided instruction in several skills including: high-speed driving techniques, radio communications, topography, martial arts training, firearms, and specialized assault techniques, and others. These skills must be successfully mastered before the student can advance to the more specialized second phase. Candidates successfully completing the first phase, advance to the six month long advance training course. During the advanced phase students will be instructed in rock climbing and mountaineering, explosives, sniping , and other specialized skills. Lastly they attended the Italian Army’s parachute school where operatives are trained in both conventional static line and HALO parachute techniques. Several unit members have received SCUBA, EOD training.

NOCS insures that its intervention techniques are constantly updated and improved through the exchange of information and joint training conducted with foreign specialist units. NOCS operators have trained with a virtual who’s who of international counter terror and special operations units including: the FBI’s Hostage Rescue Team (HRT), Israel’s YA’M’AM border guard unit, Germany’s GSG-9 and and several state police SEKs, Spain’s GEO, France’s national police RAID unit, the Japanese NPA “Escort Service” , Swiss Ticino Canton Unit, Saudi National Guard CT Team, Belgian ESI, US Army’s 10th Special Forces Group, Danish Jaegerkorpset and Dutch KCT. NOCS operators have also attended training at the International Long Range Reconnaissance Patrol (ILRRP) School in Weingarten, Germany. SOD/NOCS has also been at the forefront of establishing relations with similar units of the former Warsaw Pact, including the Austrian SEG.

To help it execute its mission, NOCS has a wide range of specialized equipment and weapons at its disposal. Weapons in use by NOCS operators are known to include the following: HK-MP5 series of submachine guns equipped, with a wide variety of night vision, laser targeting, and illumination devices; Franchi SPAS-15 and Bernadelli B4 12 gauge shotguns; Baretta 92F 9mm pistols with both standard and 20 round extended magazines; Mauser 66 and HK PSG-1 7.62 mm sniper rifles.
For transportation NOCS maintains a small fleet of specialized modified vehicles that are operated by the units drivers. The fleet is known to include: Alfa-Romeo limousines, Mitsubishi vans, motorcycles, jeeps, and armored vehicles. NOCS also has access to National Police aircraft and boats for rapid transport.
Operators wear flame proof coveralls, Nomex or shooting gloves, Nomex balaclava, either a Kevlar or plastic Pro-Tec style helmet, customized assault vest, Kevlar body armor, and assault boots.

Source: Special War Network

Somali Islamists say Ethiopia has ‘declared war’

November 7, 2006

Somalia’s powerful Islamist movement Monday accused neighboring Ethiopia of “declaring war” on them, as they awaited the delayed resumption of peace talks here with the country’s weak government.

While they and mediators prepared for the late arrival of a government delegation, the Islamists renewed accusations that Ethiopia had sent troops to support the transitional administration and again rejected Kenyan mediation.

“Ethiopia has declared war on Somalia and has already made a large military incursion deep into Somali territory,” they said in a letter to mediators and international observers attending the talks in the Sudanese capital. “That not only undermines the reconciliation process but also seriously threatens peace and security of Somalia and the whole region in general,” the letter said.

“Any new conflict will not only retard, but destroy the peace dividends and civic gains so far achieved,” it said, referring to developments since the Islamists seized Mogadishu in June and then rapidly expanded territory. “We are [also] seriously opposed to the co-chairmanship of Kenya in this peace process and we would like to be assured of acceptance of our points of view before the commencement of business,” said the letter signed by the delegation of the Supreme Islamic Council of Somalia (SICS).

The text was addressed to the Sudanese hosts of the talks, the Arab League, the United Nations, and the US-created International Contact Group on Somalia, all of which fear all-out war that may erupt into regional conflict.

It was released after the planned 11:00 am (0800 GMT) start of the third round of negotiations, to be chaired by the Arab League and Kenya, was delayed by the late arrival of the government delegation amid reports of infighting.

UN envoy for Somalia Francois Fall said that he was confident that Arab and African mediators as well as international observers in Sudan for the negotiations would resolve conditions set out by Islamists to meet the government face-to-face.

“The international community members that are here to support the peace process will meet the Islamic courts to resolve the conditions laid down,” Fall told reporters at the talks’ venue, adding that such a meeting would also be held with members of the transitional government.

At the weekend, the Islamists said that they would attend the talks but would not meet face-to-face with the government unless Ethiopia withdraws troops that it has allegedly deployed to Somalia to protect the administration.

They also rejected Kenya as co-chair of the negotiations, accusing it of pro-government bias for supporting, along with Ethiopia, the deployment of a proposed regional peacekeeping force.

Mainly Christian Ethiopia denies reports that it has as many as 8,000 soldiers in Somalia but acknowledges sending military advisors to help protect the government from “jihadists” some of whom are accused of links with Al Qaeda.

Kenya was appointed this month to co-chair the negotiations with the Arab League, which had been the sole mediator at two previous rounds, after the government complained of Arab bias.

Kenya currently holds the presidency of the Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD), a group of seven East African nations that brokered the formation of the government in 2004 and now plans to send peacekeepers there.

But the bloc is deeply split over the proposed mission, with members Eritrea and Djibouti opposing the force; Kenya, Ethiopia, Uganda, the Somali government in favor; and Sudan backing off earlier support.

The Islamists have vowed to fight any foreign troops on Somali territory and, in their letter, accused IGAD and the African Union, which has endorsed the force, of creating “new hostilities.”

“It is amazing that while the SICS and the Somali people have achieved so much within a short time, some members of IGAD, unfortunately supported by the African Union and other countries, are creating new hostilities in Somalia,” it said.

They said that rampant lawlessness endemic in Somalia since 1991 had been curbed in areas they control, with the creation of Islamic courts, the elimination of freelance gunmen, and resumption of public works projects.
Source: AFP

Russia delivers Destroyer to China

November 7, 2006

The Russian Severnaya Verf yards, delivered a 956EM type Destroyer to the Chinese Navy. The contract for the vessel and a sistership -Currently constructed-, is worth around 1 billion USD.

The 8,440 Tn Destroyer measures 163 by 19.0 by 4.8 metres and is propelled by a two shaft gas turbines of 54,420 kW. It has accomodation for 340 crew members.

Source: Baird publications


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