The following bibliography is taken from the “History of the Armenian Genocide” by Vahakn N. Dadrian through the courtesy of the author to whom we express our profound appreciation not only for his courtesy but also for his life-long dedication to the study of the Armenian Genocide.
PRIMARY SOURCES. STATE AND NATIONAL ARCHIVES. OFFICIALS DOCUMENTS
Osterreichisches Staatsarchiv. Die Akten des k. u. k. Ministeriums des Aussern 1848-1918 (Foreign Ministry Archives ot Austria in Vienna) Abteilung XII: Turkei Kartons (files) 462,463; XL. Interna File 272; Konsulate 38, file 303; Karton Rot 947.
European Parliament Resolution. Doc. No. A2-33/87. 31(1987). Agenda Item 10. Resolution on a Political Solution to the Armenian Question.
German State Archive (Staatsarchiv) vols. 31, 32, 33 H.V. Kremer-Auenrode and Hirsch, eds. Leipzig, 1877.
Federal Republic of Germany, Akten des Auswdrtigen Amtes 1867-1920 (West Germany’s Foreign Office Archives, Bonn) Abteilung IA (Political Dept.)
The Diplomatic Archives of the Foreign Ministry of Germany (Die Diplomatischen Akten des Auswartigen Amtes), vols. 9, 10, 11, 12(1), 12(2).
Orientalia Generalia. No. 5. vol. 30. (1896).
Turkei, file numbers 158 and 183, with sets of volumes (Band), and corresponding entry numbers, preceded by letter A, attached to them.
Botschaft Konstantinopel (K) Consular documents.
Grosses Hauptquartier, (German General Headquarters) vols. 185, 187, 194.
German Military Archives (Bundesarchiv-Militararchiv), i.e., BA/MA.
Deutschland und Armenien, 1914-1918: Sammlung diplomatischer Aktenstucke. J. Lepsius ed., 1919. (German Foreign Office archive documents dealing almost entirely with the World War I Armenian deportations and massacres).
The German Documents on the Outbreak of the War 1914. (Die deutschen Dokumente zum Kriegsausbruch 1914), compiled by K. Kautsky. Max Graf von Montgelas, and Walter Schuckling, eds., 2nd expanded ed, vol. 1. Berlin. 1922.
The Talat Pasa Trial (Der Prozess Talaat Pascha) Stenographic Records. Berlin, 1921.
Archives du Ministere des Affaires Etrangeres. Quai d’Orsay, Paris (Foreign Ministry Archives)
Documents Diplomatiques. Affaires Armeniennes. Projets de Reformes Dans l’Empire Ottoman 1893-1897 (Livre Jaune) Paris, 1897.
Documents Diplomatiques. Affaires Armeniennes (Supplement) 1895-1896. Paris 1897.
Documents Diplomatiques Francais 1871-1900. vols. XI, XII, Paris, 1947, 1951.
Nouvelle Serie: Correspondance politique et commercial 1897: Turquie. Politique interieure. Dossier General, vols. 7 and 8. Jeunes Turcs.
Guerre 1914-1918: vols. I, II, III. Turquie. 887-889 Armenie. August 1914-December 1915, January 1916-March 1917, April 1917-May 1918.
Les Grandes Puissances, L’Empire Ottoman et les Armeniens dans les archives francaises (1914-1918). (A. Beylerian, ed. 1983). (French Foreign, War, and General Headquarters Office documents dealing with the Armenian genocide).
V. GREAT BRITAIN
British Documents on Ottoman Armenians, vol. I. 1856-1880 (Ankara. 1982); vol. 2. 1880-1890. 1983. B. Simsir, ed.
Blue Book Series on Turkey. 1877-1881, 1895-1897. (Reports by Her Majesty’s Diplomatic and Consular Agents in Turkey Respecting the persecution, oppression and massacres of the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire)
Foreign Office (FO) Archives. Public Record Office, London and Kew.
Class 371 Files. Political: General Correspondence, 1915-1920. (persecution, deportation, massacres of Armenians in Turkey)
Class 608 Files. Paris Peace Conference Records, 1919-1920
WO 106. War Office Directorate of Military Operations and Intelligence.
Great Britain. Parliament. The Treatment of the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire: Documents Presented to Viscount Grey of Fallodon, Secretury of State for Foreign Affairs. (Compiled by A. Toynbee. Miscellaneous No. 31, 1916). (A massive collection of accounts on the Armenian genocide up to summer 1916 by European and American observers in wartime Turkey.)
Armenia. Parliamentary Debates, House of Lords. (November 13, 1918); House of Commons (October 23, 24, 30. 31, November 6, 7, 12, 14, 18, 1918) A. Raffi, ed. London, 1918.
British Documents on the Origins of the War 1889-1914. Part I, vol. 9. Gooch and Temperley, eds. London, 1926.
Documents on British Foreign Policy 1919-1939, vol. 4. First Series, W. Woodward and R. Butler, eds. London, 1952.
VI. TURKEY (OTTOMAN EMPIRE AND THE TURKISH REPUBLIC)
Ottoman Archives. Yildiz Collection. The Armenian Question, vol. 1. Tailori Incidents. Istanbul Research Center, 1989.
Corps de Droit Ottoman, Code de Procedure Penale (Treatise of Ottoman Law, Code of Criminal Procedure) G. Young, vol. 7. Oxford, 1906.
Ottoman Constitution (Midhat). reprinted in American Journal of International Law. 2 (Supp. 1908): The French text of the Constitution is in Schopoff, Reformes.
Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi Gizli Celse Zabitlari (The Transcripts of the Secret Sessions of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey) (Turkiye Is Βanka Cultural Series, Publ. No. 267), 4 vols.; vol. 4 (March 2, 1923-Oct. 25, 1934) Ankara, 1985.
Takvimi Vekayi issues (Ottoman government’s official gazette whose supplements [ilave] served as judicial journal, recording the proceedings of the Turkish Military Tribunal that tried the authors of the Aimeman genocide Istanbul, 1919-20).
Meclisi Mebusan Zabit Ceridesi (Transcripts of the Proceedings of the Chamber of Deputies) Third Election Period. Fifth Session. 1918.
Meclisi Ayan Zabit Ceridesi (Transcripts of the Proceedings of the Senate) Third blection Period. Fifth Session. 1918.
Harb Kabinelerinin Isticvabi (War Cabinet Ministers’ Hearings) by Ottoman Chamber of Deputies Fifth Committee. November-December, 1918 (1334). (This is an abbreviated version of the transcripts of the hearings which the Istanbul Turkish daily Vakit in 1933 published in the form of a Special Supplement. The complete version ol the transcripts was published by the Fifth Committee itself under the title Meclisi Mebusan Zabitlari [Records of the Proceedings of the Chamber of Deputies] Third Parliament, 5th session, No. 521) Istanbul, 1918.
Nutuk. Kemal Ataturk (Speech, K. Ataturk), vol. 3, 7th ed. Istanbul, n.d.
Tarihi Muhakeme (Historical Trial [of the authors ot the Armenian genocide]) (Kit. Sudi ed.) Istanbul, 1919 (This volume contains the transcripts of the first two sessions of the Cabinet Ministers’ trials described under VI, Takvimi Vekayi).
K. Karabekir, Istiklal Harbimiz (Our War of Independence). Istanbul, 1st ed. 1960; 2d ed. 1969. (A massive compilation of official documents covering mainly the political and military correspondence between the fledgling Ankara government and the Commander in Chief of Ankara’s Eastern Front Army 1919-20).
A Speech Delivered by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk 1927 (Istanbul, 1963) (Contains the pertinent documents in support of Mustafa Kemal’s account of the direction of the Turkish War of Independence and its aftermath, 1919-1924. The speech lasted six days, Oct. 15-20, 1927, and was delivered before the Deputies and Representatives of the Republican Party that was founded by him. The volume is published under the auspices of the Turkish Ministry of Education).
The Imperial Ottoman Penal Code. J. Bucknill and H. Utidjian trans. Oxford, 1913.
Documents. (purporting to demonstrate Armenian guilt and the relative innocence of the Ittihad government), vol. I. Compiled by The Office of Press and Information, Directorate General, Prime Ministry. Ankara, 1982.
VII. UNITED NATIONS
Escor Comm. on Human Rights, Sub-Comm. on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities. U.N. ESCOR Comm. on Human Rights, Sub-Comm. on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities (38th sess.) (Item 57) 7, U.N: Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1985/SR.36 (1985) (summary record of 36th meeting, Aug. 29, 1985).
Agenda Item 4, Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (1985) (the Whitaker report reviewing the historical antecedents of genocide).
Summary Record of the 36th Meeting of Sub-Comm. (1985) (the Sub-Commission’s favorable response to the Whitaker report defining the World War I massacre against the Armenians as genocide). Revised and updated report on the question of the prevention and punishment of the crime of genocide, 38 U.N. ESCOR Comm. on Human Rights, Subcomm. on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, (Agenda Item 4), 8-9, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1985/6 (1985).
The United Nations War Crimes Commission, History of the United Nations War Crimes Commission and the Development of the Laws of War. London, 1948.
VIII. UNITED STATES
United States, Dept of State, National Archives Record Groups, i.e., R.G. 59 and R.G. 256, Relating to the:
Internal Affair of Turkey 1910-1929 R.G. 59. 867.4016, Race Problems (persecution, deportation, massacres and expulsion from Turkey of the Armenians).
The American Commission to Negotiate Peace at the Paris Peace Conference R.G. 256. 867.00. Turkey (political affairs).
United States, Dept. of State. Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States. 1915 Supplement The World War. Washington, 1928.
United States, Dept. of State. Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States. The Lansing Papers. 1914-1920. (L.) (In two volumes) vol. 1. Washington, D.Ρ., 1939.
132 Cong. Rec. (1986) (Statements by a host of U.S. Senators noting the Armenian genocide in their arguments in support of the U.S. ratification of the U.N. Convention on Genocide).
The Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace. Stanford. Imperial Russian Interior Ministry. Foreign Affairs Department of the Secret Service of the Police. Section 4.
SECONDARY SOURCES. PUBLISHED BOOKS IN:
Akcam, . Siyasi Kulturumuzde Zulum ve Iskence (Atrocity and Torture in Our Political Culture). Istanbul, 1992.
____. Turk Ulusal Kimligi ve Ermeni Sorumu. (Turkish National Identity and the Armenian Question). Istanbul, 1992.
Akcura,Y. Uc Tarzi Siyaset (Three Pathways of Policy). Ankara, 1987.
Aksin, S. 100 Soruda Jon Turkler ve Ittihat ve Terakki (The Young Turks and Ittihad ve Terakki in the Context of 100 Questions). Istanbul, 1980.
____. Istanbul Hukumetleri ve Milli Mucadele (The Istanbul Governments and the National Struggle), vol. 1. Istanbul, 1983; vol. 2. Istanbul, 1992.
Amca, H. Dogmayan Hurriyet. Bir Devrin Ic Yuzu 1908-1918 (Freedom Unborn, The Inside Story of an Era 1908-1918). Istanbul, 1958.
Atay, F.R. Cankaya. Istanbul, 1980.
____. Zeytindagi (Mount Olive). Istanbul, 1981.
Avcioglu, D. Milli Kurtulus Tarihi. (History of the National Liberation), vol. 3. Istanbul, 1974.
Aydemir, S.S. Makedonyadan Ortaasya’ya Enver Pasa (Enver Pasa. From Macedonia to Central Asia), vol. 2. Istanbul, 1971; vol. 3. Istanbul, 1972.
Bayar, C. Ben de Yazdim (I Too Have Written), vol. 6. Istanbul, 1968.
Bayur, H.K. Sadrazam Kamil Pasa. Siyasi Hayati (Grand Vizier Kamil Pasa. His Political Life). Ankara, 1954.
Bayur, Y.H. Turk Inkilabi Tarihi (The History of the Turkish Revolution), vol. 2. Part 4. Ankara, 1952; vol. 3. Part 1. 1953; vol. 3. Part 3. 1957; vol. 3. Part 4. 1983.
Belen, General F. Birinci Cihan Harbinde Turk Harbi (The Turkish War During the First World War), vol. 3. Ankara, 1965.
Besikci, I. Kurdistan Uzerinde Emperyalist Bolusum Mucadelesi: 1915-1925 (The Fight over Kurdistan’s Imperialist Partition 1915-1925), vol. 1. Ankara, 1992.
Bleda, M. Imparatorlugun Cokusu (The Collapse of the Empire), Istanbul, 1979.
Cemal, P. Hatiralar. Istanbul, 1977.
Cevdet Pasa, A. Tezakir (Memoirs), vol. 1. Ρ. Baysun, ed. Ankara, 1953.
Culcu, Murat. Ermeni Entrikalarinin Perde Arkasi “Torlakyan Davasi” (The Inside Story of Armenian Intrigues. “The Torlakyan Trial”) Istanbul, 1990.
Cavdar, T. Talat Pasa. Ankara, 1984.
Cosar, S. Osman Aga. Istanbul, 1971.
Danismend, I. Izahli Osmanli Tarihi Kronolojisi (The Annotated Chronology of Ottoman History), vol. 4, 2d ed. Istanbul, 1961.
Duru, K. Ziya Gokalp. Istanbul, 1949.
Erden, Orgeneral A.F. Birinci Dunya Harbinde Suriye Hatiralari (Syrian Memoirs ot World War I), vol. 1 Istanbul, 1954.
Erturk, H. Iki Devrin Perde Arkasi (Behind the Scenes During Two Eras). S.H. Tansu, ed. Istanbul, 1957.
Esatli, M.R. Ittihad ve Terakki Tarihinde Esrar Perdesi (The Curtain of Secrecy in the History of Ittihad). Istanbul, 1975.
Galib, A.R.M. Gecen Asirda Devlet Adamlarimiz (Our Statesmen of the Past Century). Istanbul, 1979.
Gokbilgin, M.. Milli Mucadele Baslarken (As the National Struggle Began), vol. 1. Ankara, 1959.
Gologlu, M., Ucuncu Mesrutiyet 1920. (The Third Constitution 1920). Ankara, 1970.
Goztepe, T.M. Osmanogullarinin Son Padisahi Sultan Vahdeddin Mutareke Gayyasinda (The Last monarch from the Ottoman Dynasty Sultan Vahdeddin in the Impasse of the Armistice). Istanbul, 1969.
Gurun, K. Ermeni Dosyasi (The Armenian File). Ankara, 1983.
Halil Mentesenin Anilari. Istanbul, 1986
Halil Pasa. Ittihad ve Terakki’den Cumhuriyet’e: Bitmeyen Savas (From Ittihad to the Republic: The Unending Fight). M.. Sorgun, ed. Istanbul, 1972.
Hocaoglu, M. Arsiv Vesikalariyla Tarihte Ermeni Mezalimi ve Ermeniler (Armenians and Armenian Atrocities in History Through Archive Documents). Istanbul, 1976.
Izzet, P.A. Feryadim (My Lamentation), vol. 1. Istanbul, 1992.
Jaeschke, G. Turk Inkilabi Tarihi Kronolojisi 1918-1923 (Chronology of the Turkish Revolution). Niyazi R. Aksu, trans. Istanbul, 1939.
Kadri, H.K. Balkanlardan Hicaz’a Imparatorlugun Tasfiyesi. 10 εοοθz Inkilabi ve Netayici (The Liquidation of the Empire from the Balkans to Hejaz. The July 10 Revolution and its Results). K. Buyukcoskun ed. Istanbul, 1992.
Kamil, P. Hatirati Sadri Esbak Kamil Pasa (The Memoirs of former Grand Vizier Kamil Pasa) Ottoman Script. Istanbul, .
Kandemir, F. Istiklal Savasinda Bozguncular ve Casuslar (Defeatists and Spies in the Fight for Independence). Istanbul, 1964.
Kansu, M.M. Erzurum’dan Olumune Kadar Atatilrk’le Beraber (From Erzurum On Up to his Death With Ataturk), vol. 1, 2d ed. Ankara, 1986.
Karabekir, K. Istiklal Harbimiz (Our War of Independence), 1st ed. Istanbul, 1960, 2d ed. Istanbul, 1969.
____. Istiklal Harbimizin Esaslari (The Essential Components of Our War of Independence). Istanbul, 1951.
____. Istiklal Harbimizde Enver Pasa ve Ittihat Terakki Erkani (Enver Pasa and the Leadership of Ittihad ve Terakki During the Independence War). Istanbul, 1967.
Kaynar, R. Turkiyede Hukuk Devleti Kurma Yolundaki Hareketler (Movements in Turkey for the Creation of a Legal State). Istanbul, 1983.
Kocas, S. Tarih Boyunca Ermeniler ve Turk-Ermeni Ilisikleri (The Armenians Throughout History and Turko-Armenian Relations). Ankara, 1967.
Kuran, A.B. Osmanli Imparatorlugunda ve Turkiye Cumhuriyetinde Inkilap Hareketleri (Revolutionary Movements in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic). Istanbul, 1959.
Kutay, C. Birinci Dunya Harbinde Teskilati Mahsusa (The Special Organization During World War I). Istanbul, 1962.
____. Celal Bayann Yazmadigi ve Yazmayacagi uc Devirden Hakikatler (Facts on Three Eras About Which Celal Bayar Did Not and Will Not Write). Istanbul, 1982.
____. Talat Pasanin Gurbet Hatiralari (The Memoirs of Talat Pasa in Exile), 3 vols., vols. 2 and 3. Istanbul, 1983.
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Oguz, B. Yuzyillar Boyunca Alman Gercegi ve Turkler (The German Reality in the Course of Centuries and the Turks). Istanbul, 1983.
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Okte, F. Varlik Vergisi Faciasi (The Tragedy of the Wealth Tax). Istanbul, n.d.
Okyar, F. Uc Devirde Bir Adam (A Man of Three Eras). C. Kutay, ed. Istanbul, 1980.
Orel, S. and S. Yuca. Ermenilerce Talat Pasa’ya Atfedilen Telegraflarin Gercek Yuzu (The Real Nature of the Telegrams Attributed to Talat Pasa by the Armenians). Ankara, 1983.
Ortayli, I. Osmanli Imparatorlugunda Alman Nufuzu (The German Influence in the history of the Ottoman Empire). Istanbul, 1983.
Osman N. Abdulhamid Sani ve Devri Saltanati. Hayati Hususiye ve Siyasiyesi. (Abdulhamit the Second and His Period of Rule. His Private and Political Life). Ottoman script. vol. 2. Istanbul, 1328/1912.
Refik, A. (Altinay), Iki Komite Iki Kital (Two Committees and Two Massacres) Ottoman Script. Istanbul, 1919.
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Simsir, B. Malta Surgunleri (The Malta Exiles). Istanbul, 1976.
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Tahsin, P. Abdulhamit Yildiz Hatiralari (Abdul Hamit’s Yildiz [Palace] Memoirs). Istanbul, 1931.
Talat Pasanin Hatiralari. (The Memoirs of Talat Pasa). E. Bolayir ed. Istanbul, 1946.
Tarihi Muhakeme. (Historical Trial [of the authors of the Armenian Genocide]). Ottoman Script. K. Sudi, ed. Istanbul, 1919. The first two sessions of Cabinet Ministers’ trials.
Tunaya, T.Z. Turkiyede Siyasal Partiler (The Political Parties in Turkey), 3 vols., 2d enl. ed. Istanbul, 1984.
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Vakit. Harb Kabinelerinin Isticvabi (The War Cabinets Hearings). Istanbul, 1933. (Special Supplement on Memoirs and Documents, no. 2.)
Vardar, G. Ittihad ve Terakki Icinde Donenler (The Inside Story of Ittihad ve Terakki). S.H. Tansu, ed. Istanbul, 1960.
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____. Turkey in my Time. Norman, Okla., 1956.
____. Turkey in the World War. New Haven, Connecticut, 1930.
____. Yakin Tarihte Gorduklerim ve Isittiklerim (The Things I Saw and Heard in Recent History), 4 vols. Istanbul, 1970.
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____. The Treatment of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire 1915-16. Compiled by A. Toynbee. London,1916.
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____. The Prevention of Genocide. New Haven, Connecticut, 1985.
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Stillschweig, K. “Das Abkommen zur Bekampfung von Genocide.” Die Friedenswarte fur Zwischenstaatliche Organisation 3 (1949).
Werner, E. “Okonomishce und Militarische Aspekte der Turkei-Politik Osterreich-Ungarns 1915 bis 1918,” Jahrbuch fur Geschichte 10 (1974).
Hanotaux, G. “En Orient,” Revue de Paris 6 (December 1, 1895).
Mandelstam, A. “La Societe des Nations et les puissances devant le probleme armenien.” Revue Generale de Droit International Public 29, 5 (September-October 1922): 301-84; 29, 6 (November-December 1922): 515-46; 30, 5 (September-October 1923): 414-506; 31, 6 (New Series) (1924).
Panzac, D. “L’enjeu du nombre. La population de la Turquie de 1914 a 1927.” Revue du Monde Musulman de la Meditarranee 50, 4 (1988).
Pinon, R. “La liquidation de 1’Empire Ottoman.” Revue des Deux Mondes 53 (September 1919).
____. “L’Offensive de l’Asie” Revue des deux Mondes (April 15, 1920).
Quillard, P. “Pour 1’Armenie,” Memoire et Dossier (19th issue of the series) (Paris, 1902).
Rio, Ρ. “Etude sur 1’article 175 du code penal mexicain ‘genocide.'” Etudes Internationales de Psycho-Sociologie Criminelle 16-17 (1969).
Hayrabedian, H. “Hadoutzoum” (Settling Scores). Sovetakan Haiasdan 8 (1984).
Hovannissian, R. “Vanee 1896 Tuwee Eenknabashdbanoutiunu” (The Self-Defense of Van in 1896), Lraper (July, 1976).
“Kegham Der Garabedianee Vugayatounu” (The Testimony of K. D. G.). In Badmoutiun Daronee Achkharee (History of Daron), 838-54, G. Sassouni, ed. (1957).
Khoren S. “Hishoghutiunner” (Memories), In Teotig, Amenoun Daretzouytzu (Everyone’s Almanac), 10-14: 132-36. (1916-1920).
Mugurditchian, H. “Kaghdniknerou Gudzigu” (The Thread of the Secrets), Hairenik (an Armenian daily published by the author during the Armistice for a very short period in Istanbul). Installments Nos. 1 and 2 (October 28/November 10; October 30/November 12,1918).
Sirounee, H. “Yegem mu yev eer Badmutyunu” (A Genocide and its History). Etchmiadzin (February-March-April joint issue 1965).
Yayloian, A. “Medz Deroutiunneri Gogme Moratzuadz Jhogovourt” (A People Forsaken by the Great Powers). Sovetakan Haiasdan. 4 (1987).
NEWSPAPERS (mostly from Constantinople-Istanbul. 1908-1920 Period).
Alemdar; Cumhuriyet; Dunya; Hadisat; Hayat; Hurriyet; Minber; Sabah; Tanin; Tasviri Efkar; Vakit
Azadamard (Ariamard); Hairenik (Armistice Daily, Istanbul); Nayiri; Zhamanag
Le Courrier de Turquie; L’Entente; L’Epoque; Le Journal d’Orient; Renaissance; Spectateur d’Orient
Berliner Tageblatt; Die Zeit; Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung; Kolnische Zeitung
Boston Globe; New York Times and its weekly reviews: Current History
ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SELECTED BOOKS USED IN THIS WORK
Aksin, Sina, 1980: A critical examination of the ideology of Ittihad and of the conditions under which original liberalism gave way to autocracy and anti-minority oppression.
Aksin, Sina, 1983: Describes the conditions under which the Sultan’s government in Istanbul grew weak in the Armistice and got embroiled in a hopeless contest with the Kemalist insurgents in Anatolia.
Atay, F.R.: The personal contacts with top Ittihadist leaders are recounted with considerable candor by the author who, as a former Ittihadist and subsequently an ardent Kemalist, had access to the inner circles of both regimes, thus able to learn some secret details about the attitudes and actions of men persecuting the Armenians.
Avcioglu, D.: Chronicles the phases of the Turkish War of Independence with details, some of which are revealing as far as they relate to the secret aspects of the wartime Armenian deportations culminating in genocide.
Bayur, Y.H. A systematic approach to the conduct of the Ittihadist authorities prosecuting the war and in the process resorting to the Armenian deportations as a wartime emergency measure. Written under the auspices of the Turkish Historical Society and strictly from a Turkish point of view.
Bleda, M.: The edited memoirs of the chief administrator of the Ittihadist party explaining, justifying and excusing many of the transgressions and excesses of some of the top party leaders.
Erturk, H.: Provides certain disclosures about the inner workings of the Special Organization and its relationship to the Central Committee of the party.
Gurun, K.: An elaborate attempt to deny any Turkish design of extermination of the Armenians, whose wartime losses are entirely attributed to the poor management of “the relocation” scheme, to Kurdish excesses and Armenian provocations through insurgency.
Karabekir, K.: A massive compilation of official documents relating to the Turkish War of Independence and to the Kemalist invasion of the Republic of Armenia in 1920.
Orel S. and S. Yuca.: Like the other two books by Bayur and Gurun described above, this volume is also sponsored and supported by the Turkish Historical Society, thus representing directly and indirectly official governmental stances on very controversial subjects, such as the wartime treatment of the Armenians. The two authors through this book endeavor to discredit completely another volume described to contain official Turkish documents on the authorization and implementation of the Armenian genocide, by declaring these documents “forgeries.” For the refutation of these charges see Dadrian below on Naim-Andonian Documents in Articles Section in English.
Refik, A.: This is perhaps the main, if not the only, Turkish work, produced right after the war, that unequivocally admits the exterminating thrust of the wartime Armenian deportations and the premeditated and organized character of the mass murder involved. The value of this book is enhanced by the fact that the author had a military background, was assigned to Department II of the War Office where the military details of the genocide are reported to have been mapped out, and he quotes the War Ministry officials trying to concoct false accusations against the Armenians in an attempt to justify the severity of the anti-Armenian measures. A part of the book relates also the revenge acts of Armenian volunteers attached to the Causasian Russian Army, which in 1916 had captured several provinces in eastern Turkey, whose Armenian population by then had already been destroyed.
Talat Pasanin Hatiralari: A fragment of the memoirs Talat reportedly prepared while living in Berlin as a fugitive of justice, edited by others .Essentially, it is an effort of self-justification and of shifting the blame to others for the disastrous war and the excesses committed in the course of it, including the Armenian massacres.
Uras, E.: A major undertaking by a former Turkish secret service agent to trace the evolution of the Armenian Question to its historical origins, to minimize the responsibility of the Abdul Hamit regime in the outbreak of the massacres of that period and altogether blame the Armenian revolutionaries for the misfortunes befalling the Armenian population during the reign of Abdul Hamit and subsequently during World War I.
Vardar, G.: Another piece of inside story type of narration relating to the role of Special Organization operatives in the creation and development of Kemalist insurgency in the 1918-1920 period from cells in Istanbul, right under the nose of the Sultan’s government.
Yalman, A.E., 1970: The first 2 volumes of this 4-volume memoir contain a wealth of information on the Ittihadist chiefs who, along with the author, were interned in Malta for later trials before an international court on charges of war crimes, including Armenian massacres.
Ahmad, F.: A compact account of the trials and tribulations of the Ittihadist Young Turks endeavoring to govern the country in the aftermath of their successful revolution without possessing, however, the requisite experience, competence or the administrative personnel.
Genocide. A Critical Bibliographic Review. A survey by R. Hovannisian of the more important works in several languages on the Armenian genocide through brief annotations attached to the respective bibliography.
Hovannisian, R., 1967: This study describes the overall post-genocide conditions playing out in the formation of the independent Republic of Armenia and at the same time aggravating the latter’s plight economically and politically.
Hovannisian, R., 1980: A bibliography of source materials on the Armenian genocide in terms of archive depositories, published documentary tomes, historical studies and eyewitness accounts.
Institut fur Armenische Fragen: Two volumes comprising a large body of selected documents dealing with the history of Armenian persecution and massacres in the 19th and 20th centuries. The archives of Europe, Russia, the United States and eyewitness accounts in several languages constitute the source-bases of the two tomes.
Kuper, L., 1981: A pioneering study in the comparative aspects of the crime of genocide and the problems of conceptualization and theory construction.
Mariott, J.: One of the best analyses of the origin, rise and the violent explosion of the Eastern Question in the Balkans.
Morgenthau, H.: The most detailed personal account, based mostly on regular diary entries, of the processes of decision making, organization and execution relative to the wartime Armenian massacres, narrated by an American Ambassador to Turkey.
Nansen, F.: Exposure of the dimensions of the impact upon the fate of the surviving Armenians of the World War I Armenian genocide by a Nobel Peace Prize winning humanitarian High Commissioner of Refugees.
Permanent Peoples’ Tribunal.: The summary description of the proceedings of the Permanent Peoples’ Tribunal investigating at Sorbonne in Paris the World War I Armenian massacres and reaching the verdict that these massacres involved genocide. The Panel of judges included several experts on international law and three Nobel laureates.
Shaw and Shaw: A comprehensive survey of modern Ottoman history with a strong bias for Turkish historiographic parochialism, which bias lapses into outright misrepresentation in the treatment of the Armenian Question, especially with regard to the series of massacres in modern times, including World War I.
Stoddard, P.: The only English language study, in a rudimentary form, of the origins of the Special Organization and its operational program respecting the Arabs. It utilizes some authentic Turkish sources, including interviews with one of its chief leaders.
Trumpener, U.: One of the most thorough analyses of the Armenian genocide in the light of German state archive documents and within the framework of the wartime political and military alliance between Germany and Turkey.
Ussher, Ρ.: A first hand American account of the Turkish method of initiating the genocide in the easternmost province of Van and then accusing the Armenians of provocation.
Walker, Ρ.: A survey of modern Armenian history within the perspective of the evolving Turko-Armenian conflict and the resulting repressive measures of Ottoman-Turkish authonties.
Domergue, E.: A contemporary French narrative of the Turkish conspiracy to liquidate the Armenian population with the tacit support of the Germans. It has a historical frame of reference.
Engelhardt, E.: One ot the most authoritative treatments of the history, purpose, difficulties, successes and failures of the 19th century Tanzimat reform initiative.
Mandelstam, A., 1917: An informed contribution, by the First Dragoman of Russian Embassy, to the understanding of the wartime conditions under which the Armenians of Turkey were expelled, deported and destroyed.
Mandelstam, A., 1926: The legal examination of the many phases of the Armenian Question from the point of view of international politics and international law.
Noradounghian, G.: A comprehensive compilation of the record of official transactions of the Ottoman Empire in relation to other states in the period indicated.
Schopoff, A.: A catalog of treaties and agreements dealing with the quest for safeguards for the Christian nationalities and minorities of the Ottoman Empire.
Ternon, Y.: A critical inquiry into the Turkish patterns of denial of the Armenian genocide.
Jackh, E.: Written by a confidential operative of the German Foreign Ministry, the book contains some revealing admissions on the 1894-96 and 1909 Adana massacres which foreshadowed the World War I genocide.
Kunzler, J.: A rare, first-hand, eye-witness account of the genocide being enacted in Urfa and its environs.
Lepsius, J.: An expanded version of the wartime collection by Dr. Lepsius of documentary data about the Armenian genocide.
Pomiankowski, J.: An eyewitness account of that genocide by the Austrian Military Plenipotentiary who was attached to the Ottoman Military Headquarters – General Staff.
Sturmer, H.: An eyewitness account of the genocide by the wartime correspondent of the influential German newspaper Kolnische Zeitung.
Zurlinden, S.: A documentary exposure by the Swiss historian of the crimes associated with the wartime deportations of the Armenians.
The following entries form part of the bibliography contained in the “German Responcibility in the Armenian Genocide” by Vahakn N. Dadrian through the courtesy of its author. Entries which also appear in the foregoing bibliography have been omitted.
PRIMARY SOURCES. STATE AND NATIONAL ARCHIVES. OFFICIALS DOCUMENTS
Federal Republic of Germany, Akten des Auswartigen Amtes 1867-1920 (West Germany’s Foreign Office Archives, Bonn) Abteilung IA (Political Dept.)
Aktenstucke. J. Lepsius ed., 1919. (German Foreign Office archives documents dealing almost entirely with the World War I Armenian deportation and massacres).
A. A. Bonn. Goppert Papers (Nachlass) vol. VI, file 5 (files 1-8).
Archives du Patriarcat de Constantinople (APC). Documents Officiels et Rapports (DOR), Paris (Nubar Library).
VI. TURKEY (OTTOMAN EMPIRE AND THE TURKISH REPUBLIC)
Sonyel, Dr. Salahi, Displacement of the Armenians. Documents (pamphlet in English, French and Turkish) Ankara, 1978.
Atilhan, C. R. Filistin Cephesinde Yahudi Casuslar (Jewish Spies in the Palestine Front.) Istanbul, 1947.
Aydemir, S. S. Ikinci Adam (Second Man) vol.1, 3rd ed. Istanbul, 1973.
Bayar, C. Ben de Yazdim. Milli Mucadeleye Giris (I Too Have Written. The Start of the National Struggle) vol. 5. Istanbul, 1967.
Belen, Gen. F. Birinci Cihan Narbinde Turk Harbi. 1916 Yili Hareketleri (The Turkish War in World War I. The Action of 1916) vol. 4. Ankara, 1965.
____. Osmanlidan Cumhuriyete. Yuzyilimizda Bir Insanimiz (From the Ottoman to the Republic Era. Our Man of the Century). Huseyin Rauf Orbay (1881-1964). vol. 4. Istanbul, 1992.
____. Siyasi Mahkumlar Adasi: Malta (Malta: The Island for the Politically Condemned People). Istanbul, 1963.
Kucuk, Dr. A. Donmeler ve Donmelik Tarihi (The Donmes and the History of the Practice of Becoming Donmes. Istanbul, 1979.
Oke, Dr. K. Ermeni Meselesi 1914-1923 (The Armenian Question), Istanbul, 1986.
____. II. Abdulhamid, Siyonistler ve Filistin Meselesi (Abdulhamid II. The Zionist and the Palestine Problem) Istanbul, 1981.
Okyar, F. Uc Devirde Bir Adam (A Man of Three Eras). C. Kutay, ed. Istanbul, 1980.
Olcen, A. N. Osmanli Meclisi Mebusaninda Kuvvetler Ayirimi ve Siyasal Iskenceler (The Debate in the Ottoman Chamber of Deputies on Separation of Powers and Politically Inspired Tortures) Ankara, 1982.
Sertel, M. Z. Hatirladiklarim. 1905-1950 (The Things I Remember). Istanbul, 1968.
Soyasal, I. Dunya ve Turkiyede Masonlar ve Masonluk (Freemasons and Freemasonary in the World and in Turkey) Istanbul, 1980.
Tanyu, Dr. H. Tarih Boyunca Yahudiler ve Turkler (Jews and Turks in the course of History) vol.1, 2nd expanded ed. Ankara, 1977.
Yilmaz, V. 1ci Dunya Harbinde Turk-Alman Ittifaki ve Askeri Yardimlar (The World War I Turko-German Alliance and the Range of Military Assistance). Istanbul, 1993.
Barrows, J. O. In the Land of Ararat. New-York, 1916.
Dadrian, V.N. The History of the Armenian Genocide. Ethnic conflict from the Balkans to Anatolia to the Caucasus. Providence/Oxford, 1995.
Emin (Yalman), A. Turkey in the World War. New Haven, CT. 1930.
Friedman, I. Germany, Turkey, and Zionism. 1897-1918. Oxford, 1977.
Horton, G. Recollections Grave and Gay. Indianapolis, 1927.
Knapp, G.H. The Tragedy of Bitlis. New York, 1919.
Kotker, N. Herzl the King. New York, 1972.
Lewis, Bernard. The Emergence of Modern Turkey. London/New York, 1961, reprinted 1962.
Rowan, R.W. The Story of Secret Service. New York, 1937.
Weizman, C. Trial and Error. Autobiography. 3rd ed. London, 1949.
Eckart, B. Meine Erlebnisse in Urfa. Berlin-Potsdam, 1922.
Guse, F. Die Kaukasusfront im Welktrieg. Leipzig, 1940.
Gust, Wolfgang, Der Volkermord an den Armeniern. Die Tragodie des altesten Christenvolkes der Welt, Ulm, 1993. (The Genocide of the Armenians. The Tragedy of the World’s Oldest Christian People.
von Kressenstein, Kres Friedrich Mit den Turken zum Suezkanal. Berlin, 1938.
von Muller, G.A. Der Kaiser… Aufzeichnungen des Chefs des Marinekabinetts Admiral G.A. V.Muller uber die Ara Wilhelms II. (Navy Cabinet Chef Admiral Muller’s Notes on William II’s Era of Rule) W. Gollitz ed. Gottingen, 1965.
Nicolai, Col. W. Geheime Machte. Internationale Spionage und ihre Bekampfung im Weltkrieg und heute. Leipzig, 1923.
de Nogales, R. Vier Jahre unter dem Halbmond. Berlin, 1925. A major feature of this edition, which by one year preceded the English edition of the original Spanish text is the magnitude of deletions of portions which depict the Turks, especially War Minister Enver, in unsavory situations.
Nossing, Dr. A. die Neue Turkei und Ihre Fuhrer. Halle, 1917.
Rohrbrach, P. Vom Kaukasus zum Mittelmieer. Eine Hochzeits – und Studienreise durch Armenien. Berlin, 1903.
Sommer, Dr. Ernst, Die Wahrheit uber die Leiden des armenischen Volks in der Turkei Wahrend des Weltkriegs. Frankfurt a. Main, 1919.
Ular A. and Instabato, E. Der Erloschende Halbmond. Turkische Enthullungen. Frankfurt A.M. 1909.
von Vietsch, ed., E. Cegen die Unvernunft. Der Briefwechsel zwischen Paul Graf Wolff Metternich und Wilhelm Solf 1915-1918. Bremen, 1964.
Wallach, J.L. Anatomie einer Militarhilfe. Die preussisch-deutschen Militarmissionen in der Turkei 1835-1919. Dusseldorf, 1976.
Zechlin, E. Die deutsche Politik und die Juden im ersten Weltkreig. Gottingen, 1969.
Izzet-Fuad, G. Autres Occasions Perdues… Critique Strategique de la Campagne d’Asie Mineure 1877-1878. Paris, 1908.
Kevorkian. R.H. and Paul B. Paboudjian. Les Armenians dans l’Empire Ottoman a la veilee du genocide. Paris, 1922.
Young, G. Constantinople. Depuis les origines jusqu’a nos jours. Paris, 1934.
Andonian, A. Medz Vodjiru (The Great Crime). Boston, 1921.
Arvas, I. “Tarihi Hakikatler, Eski Van Mebusu Ibrahim Arvasin Hatiralari,” (Historical Facts. The Memoirs of Former Van Deputy Ibrahim Arvas) Yeni Istiklal, April 21, 1965, No. 193.
Ihsan T. (Former Minister of Navy). “Ittihad ve Farmasonlik.” Resimli Tarih Mecmuasi 2, 18 (June 1951).
Kandemir, F. “Ittihat-Terakki.” Yakin Tarihimiz 2 (1962).
Rifki (Atay), F. Dunya, December 17, 1967. Atay’s weekly column Pazar Konusmasi (Sunday talk).
Buheiry, M. R. “Theodor Herzl and the Armenian Question.” Journal of Palastine Studies (February 1977).
Charny, Israel. “A Letter from Professor Lewis,” Internet on the Holocaust and Genocide. Special Tenth Anniversary Issue. 1985-1995. Nos. 54/55/56 (April 1995).
____. “Genocide as a Problem of National and International Law: The World War I Armenian Case and Its Contemporary Legal Ramifications” Yale Journal of International Law 14, 2.
____. “The Comparative Aspects of the Armenian and Jewish Cases of Genocide: A Socio-Historical Perspective,” in Rosenbaum, Alan, ed., Is the Holocaust Unique? Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 101-135 (1966).
Haley, C. D. “The Desperate Ottoman: Enver Pasha and the German Empire” Middle East History 30, 1 (January 1944) and 30,2 (April 1994).
Kedourie, E. “Young Turks, Freemasons and Jews.” Middle Eastern Studies 7, 1 (January 1971).
Weltmann, A. E. “Germany, Turkey, and the Zionist Movement, 1914-1918.” The Review of Politics 23, 1 (January 1961).
Baltzer, K.a.D. “Das romantische Ende der drei grossen Turken der Kriegszeit, Talaat, Enver und Dschemal Pascha. Eine Erinnerung an den 1. November 1918″ Orient-Rundschau (November 10, 1933).
von der Goltz, Freiherr (baron), Retired Colonel, “Die Spionage in der Turkei” Die Weltkriegs-Spionage, Major-General Lettow-Vorbeck, ed., Munich, 1931.
Guse, F. “Der Armenieraufstand 1915 und seine Folgen” Wissen und Wehr vol.6 (1925).
Hartmann, M. “Der Krieg und der Orient” Deutsche-Levante Zeitung 18/19 (October 1, 1914).
Klinghardt, Dr. K. “Frau Koch-v. Winckler aus Aleppo zum Gedachtnis” Orient Rundschau XVI,9 (September 10,1934).
Lepsius, J. “Mein Besuch in Konstantinopel Juli/August 1915″ Der Orient (monthly) No. 1/3 (1919).
Treue, W. “Max Freiherr von Oppenheim – Der Archaologe und die Politik” Hisorische Zeitschrift 209 (1969).
Mesrob, K. “Turkahayern u Turkeru (1914-1918). Andeeb u Bashdonagan Pastatoughter” (Turkish Armenians and the Turks 1914-1918. Unpublished and Official Documents) Haygashen Almanac. vol. 1 (1922).
Revue D’Histoire Armenienne Contemporaire vol.I (1995) (A collection of articles and documents dealing with the history of the Turko-Armenian conflict and the World War I genocide. R. H. Kevorkian, ed.).
Vahram S. “Ariunod Turvakner” (Bloody Episodes) Zhoghovourtee Tzain, February 25, 1919.
“Dzerougee Hishadagneru 1915-1918″ (The Memoirs of Dzeroug 1915-19180). Djagadamard (namesake of Azadamard, organ of the Dashnak party, a daily in Istanbul, which often was closed down by the Turkish authorities and reappeared temporarily under new names) March 2, 1919 issue.
NEWSPAPERS (mostly from Constantinople-Istanbul. 1908-1920 Period).
Deutsche-Levante Zeitung; Der Orient; Allgemeine Missions-Zeitschrift
OTHER WORKS BY VAHAKN N. DADRIAN
I. ON GENOCIDE AND GENOCIDE – RELATED TOPICS
Histoire du Genocide Armenien. Conflits Nationaux des Balkans au Caucase. Paris: Editions Stock. 1996. 682 pp., text, 19 pp. bibliography and Index. Expanded version in French of The History of the Armenian Genocide described next. Trans. Marc Nichanian.
The History of the Armenian Genocide. Ethnic Conflict from the Balkans to Anatolia to the Caucasus. Providence/Oxford: Berghahn Books, 1995. 446 pp. text, xxviii pp. Preface and Introduction. Extensive bibliography in Turkish, German, English, French, and Armenian with annotations to selected works used in the book. Subject and Name Index.
Autopsie du Genocide Armenien. Paris: Editions Complexe, 1995. French translation of “Genocide as a Problem of National and International Law: The World War I Armenian Case and Its Contemporary Legal Ramifications,” Yale Journal of International Law, vol. 14. No. 2. (Summer, 1989). 244 pp. Two Annexes and Bibliography. Trans. Marc and Mikael Nichanian.
Ulusal ve Uluslararasi Hukuk Sorunu Olarak Jenosid. Istanbul: Belge Publishers, 1995. Turkish translation of the 1989 monograph cited above. Trans. Yavuz Alogan, 204 pp.
Haigagan Tzeghasbanoutiumu Khorturanayeen yev Badmakeedagan Kunnargoumnerov (The Treatment of the Armenian Genocide by the Ottoman Parliament and Its Historical Analysis). Boston: Baikar, 1995. In Armenian. 142 pp. and Bibliography in English.
“Genocide as a Problem of National and International Law: The World War I Armenian Case and Its Contemporary Legal Ramifications,” Yale Journal of International Law, vol. 14. No. 2. (Summer, 1989). Printed separately with two Appendices and Bibliography. 134 pp.
“The Armenian Genocide in Official Turkish Records: Collected Essays,” Special issue of Journal of Political and Military Sociology, vol. 22. No. 1. (Summer, 1994). 208 pp.
“Documentation of the Armenian Genocide in German and Austrian Sources” in The Widening Circle of Genocide I. Charny, ed. New Brunswick, N.J., 1994. Expanded and published as a separate unit. 125 pp.
TRANSLATION OF BOOK
Zarevand, United and Independent Turania. Aims and Designs of the Turks (Leiden, 1971) (From Armenian). 153 pp. text. xxiii pp. Preface and Foreword. Index.
“Egocentric Factors In Ethnocentrism – The Structural Patterns of Modern Nationalism. Sociologus 18, 2: 45-122 (1968).
“On the Dual Role of Social Conflicts.” International Journal of Group Tensions 1, 4: 371-377 (1971).
“The Bi-polar Structure of Nationalism: A Conceptual Approach.” International Review of Sociology (Revue Internationale de Sociologie) 7, 3: 121-12 (1971)
“Cultural and Social-Psychological Factors in the Study of Survivors of Genocide.” International Behavioral Scientist 3, 2: 48-55 (1971).
“Factors of Anger and Aggression in Genocide.” Journal of Human Relations 19, 3: 394-417 (1971).
“Methodological Components of the Study of Genocide as a Sociological Problem” Recent Studies in Modern Armenian History. Cambridge MA: National Association for Armenian Studies & Research 83-103 (1972).
“Structural-Functional Components of Genocide: A Victimological Approach to the Armenian Case.” in Drapkin, Israel, ed., Victimology: vol. III. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Co. 123-136 (1974).
“Common Features of the Armenian and Jewish Cases of Genocide: A Comparative Victimological Perspective,” in Drapkin, Israel, ed., Victimology: A New Focus, vol. 4, Violence and its Victims. Lexington, MA: D.C. Health and Co. 99-120 (1975).
“A Typology of Genocide.” International Review of Sociology 5, 2: 201-212 (1975).
“Some Determinants of Genocidal Violence in Inter-Group Conflicts with Particular Reference to the Armenian and Jewish Cases.” Sociologus 26, 3: 130-149 (1976).
“The Victimization of the American Indian.” Victimology: An International Journal 1, 4: 513-537 (1976).
“An Attempt at Defining Victimology.” in Viano, Emilio, ed., Victims and Society Washington, D.C.: Visage Press. 40, 2 (1976).
“An Oral Testimony and a Written Analysis of the Sociological Factors Involved in the Armenian Genocide before an American Congressional Panel, along with the Submission of a Set of Policy Recommendations.” in Hearings on Genocide, 94th Congress, Second Session Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office 6-21 (1976).
“The Naim-Andonian Documents on the World War I Destruction of the Ottoman Armenians: The Anatomy of a Genocide.” International Journal for Middle East Studies 18: 311-360 (1986).
“The Role of Turkish Physicians in the World War I Genocide of the Ottoman Armenians.” Holocaust and Genocide Studies 1, 2: 169-192 (1986).
“An Interview with Vahakn N. Dadrian: An Expert on the Armenian Genocide. Conducted by Harry James Cargas.” Social Science Record. Special Issue on Genocide. Issues, Approaches, Resources 24, 2: 23-27 (1987).
“The Anticipation and Prevention of Genocide in International Conflicts. Some Lessons from History.” International Journal of Group Tensions 18, 3: 205 214 (1988).
“The Circumstances Surrounding the 1909 Adana Holocaust.” Armenian Review 41, 4-164: 1-16 (1988).
“The Convergent Aspects of the Armenian and Jewish Cases of Genocide. A Reinterpretation of the Concept of Holocaust.” Holocaust and Genocide Studies 3, 2: 151-169 (1988).
“Genocide as a Problem of National and International Law: The World War I Armenian Case and its Contemporary Legal Ramifications.” Yale Journal of International Law 14, 2: 221-334 (1989).
“Rapports Medicaux Dresses apres l’Examen des Cadavres des Armeniens Massacres dans les Rues d’Istanbul en Septembre 1895.” Union Medical Armenienne de France 56: 10-14 (1990).
“Towards a Theory of Genocide Incorporating the Instance of Holocaust: Comments, Criticisms and Suggestions.” Holocaust and Genocide Studies 5, 2: 129-143 (1990).
“Documentation of the Armenian Genocide in Turkish Sources.” in Charny, Israel W., ed., Genocide: A Critical Bibliographic Review, vol. 2. London: Mansell; New York; Facts on File. 86-138 (1991).
“The Documentation of the World War I Armenian Massacres in the Proceedings of the Turkish Military Tribunal.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 23, 4: 549-576 (1991).
“A Textual Analysis of the Key Indictment of the Turkish Military Tribunal Investigating the Armenian Genocide.” Armenian Review 44, 1-173: 1 36 (1991).
“Von Tatern und Opfern: Der Armenische Volkermord.” Fluchtlings Forum 7,10: 32-34 (1991).
“The Perversion by Turkish Sources of Russian General Mayewski’s Report on the Turko-Armenian Conflict.” Journal of the Society for Armenian Studies 5: 139-152 (1991-1991)
“Ottoman Archives and Denial of the Armenian Genocide.” in Hovannissian, Richard G., ed., The Armenian Genocide: History, Politics, Ethics. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 280-310 (1992).
“The Role of Turkish Military in the Destruction of Ottoman Armenians: A Study in Historical Continuities.” Journal of Political and Military Sociology 20, 2: 257-286 (1992).
“A Twist in the Punishment of Some of the Arch Perpetrators of the Armenian Genocide.” The Armenian Cause 10, 2: 2E-5E (1993).
“The Role of the Special Organization in the Armenian Genocide during the First World War.” in Panayi, P., ed. Minorities in Wartime: National and Racial Groupings in Europe, North America and Australia during the World Wars. Oxford: Berg. 5-82 (1993).
“The Secret Young-Turk Ittihadist Conference and the Decision for the World War I Genocide of the Armenians.” Holocaust and Genocide Studies 7, 2: 173-201 (1993).
“Party Allegiance as a Determinant in the Turkish Military’s Involvement in the World War I Armenian Genocide.” Revue du Monde Armenien Moderne et Contemporain 1, 1: 87-101 (1994).
“The Comparative Aspects of the Armenian and Jewish Cases of Genocide: A Socio-Histori-cal Perspective,” in Rosenbaum, Alan, ed., Is the Holocaust Unique? Boulder, CO: West-view Press, 101-135 (1966).
II. ON FORMER SOVIET ARMENIA
“Nationalism Communism and Soviet Industrialization. A Theoretical Exposition,” Sociologia Internationalis (Duncker and Hamblot, Berlin) 10, 2 (1972).
“Nationalism in Soviet Armenia – A Case Study of Ethnocentrism,” Naionalism in the USSR and Eastern Europe in the Era of Brezhnev and Kosygin, George W. Simmonds, ed. (Detroit, 1977) 201-258.
“An Apprisal of the Communist Formula, ‘National in Form, Socialist in Content’,” Part 1. Armenian Review 16, 3-63: 3-14 (1963).
“An Appraisal of the Communist Formula, ‘National in Form, Socialist in Content’,” Part II. Armenian Review 16, 4-64: 3-13 (1963).
“Major Patterns of Social and Cultural Changes of Soviet Armenians.” American Philosophical Society 65: 375-379 (1965).
“Sources and Signs of Nationality Unrest.” Problems of Communism 16, 5: 70-71 (1967).
“An Interpretation of the Address to the Central Committee of the Communist Party Of the Soviet Union.” Armenian Review 20, 1-77: 64-78 (1967).
“The Events of April 24 in Moscow.” Armenian Review 21, 2-78: 9-26 (1967).
“The Karabagh Issue.” Armenian Review 21, 3-83: 57-84 (1968).
“The Development of the Soviet Posture on Nationalities – A Review of the Roles of Lenin and Stalin.” Indian Sociological Bulletin 6, 11: 18-38 (1968).
“Inter-Ethnic Conflicts in the Soviet Transcaucasus.” International Review of History and Political Science 6, 2: 79-92 (1969).
“National Communism – A Soviet Dilemma.” Political Scientist 6, 1-2: 13-20 (1970).
“Industrialization and Recent Trends of the Ethnocentrism in Armenia.” Ukrainian Quarterly 38, 1 (1972).
Translations from Soviet Armenian Intellectual-Activists
“National Vaingloriousness and National Self-Respect.” (A speech delivered at the recent 5th Congress of the Union of Soviet Armenian Writers by Barouyr Sevag.) Armenian Review 20, 3-79: 43-50 (1967).
“An Appeal to the Armenians Throughout the World.” (An essay by Soviet Armenian poet Hovannes Sheeraz.) Armenian Review 20, 3-79: 51-56 (1967).
“Who if Not Us and When if Not Right Now.” (A speech delivered by Kevork Emin at the 5th Congress of the Union of Soviet Armenian Writers.) Armenian Review 20, 4-80: 19-27 (1967).
“On Attaining a Medium-Range Image on National Character.” (by Soviet Armenian editor of the literary monthly, Karoun, Vartkes Bedrosyan). Armenian Review 20, 4-80: 27-34 (1967).
“Kant’s Concepts of ‘Human Nature’ and ‘Rationality': Two Arch Determinants of an Envisioned ‘Eternal Peace’.” Journal of Peace Research 22, 2 82: 57-64 (1968). 5, 4: 396-401 (1968).
“The Britannica on the Armenian Atrocities.” Armenian Review 22,2-82: 57 64 (1968).
“Recent Trends in Sociology in the U.S.A.” Annali Di Sociologia 6: 23-31 (1969).
“Affluence as a Key Factor in American Sociology.” International Review of History and Political Science 7,1: 23-34 (1970).
“The Cyprus Episode: Some Lessons from Turkish History.” Journal of the Hellenic Diaspora 2, 1:36-2 (1975).
“The Relationship of Subcultures to Individual Motivations of Drug Use. A Review of the Case of Marihuana.” Annali Di Sociologia 7: 23-30 (1971).
Digest of Abstracts
Armenian Research Institute of Scientific and Technical Information (ArmNIINTI)
07.00.00 HISTORICAL SCIENCES
07.00.01.0262 History of Armenian Refugees Settlements: Final Report / In-te of History of Acad. of Sciences; Supervisor of studies V. A. Mikaelian – 1995, 13p.
The principal peculiarity of Armenian people history is that it is practically the history of Armenian emigration and Armenian refugees’ communities. The point is that without serious study of Armenian emigration history it’s impossible to embrace the whole history of Armenian people, its cultural inheritance, and culture which beginning from XI-XIII centuries BC to the new times, had great importance in Armenian migration communities. The above-cited explains why so many serious research works concerning Armenian refugees communities’ history have been widely developed for the last years.
07.00.01.0264 History of Armenian Problem Genocide of Armenians, and Russian and Armenian Relations: Final Report / In-te of History of Acad. of Sciences; Supervisor of studies M. G. Nersesian – 1995, 6p.
The following subjects have been studied: 1. History of Armenian problem. 2. Armenian problem and Germany of the end of XIX century and the beginning of XX century. 3. Slaughter of Armenians of 1919-1922 (Digest of documents). Demographic problems in XVIII-XIX centuries: conservative movement in 1880-90 in Western Armenia. “Genocide of Armenians of 1915-1916, Bibliography”. “German and Turkish Sources about Genocide of Armenians” (digest of articles, 1995). “Russian sources about Genocide of Armenians”.
07.00.01.0265 Formation of Armenian People and State Organization in Armenia: Final Report / In-te of History of Acad. of Sciences; Supervisor of studies E. L. Danielian – 1995, 6p.
Armenian state system is one of the most ancient in history of human civilization. It was formed in the territory of Armenian plateau, as a highest principle of Armenian people, as well as social, political and cultural development of Armenian society formation. Our ancient thinkers perceived it exactly that way. Ideological comprehension of Armenian state system, struggle against foreign yoke and ideology, phylosophical perception of society development are the principal methods for theoretical perception of ancient history of Armenia. Information from external sources were verified on the basis of Armenian primary sources. Such methodology allows to consider the history of Armenia together with its ethnic roots in the system of countries of Asia Minor. In these studies Armenia is considered as a main part of Indoeuropean prime homeland, and in this connection have been found answers in such areas of historiography as politics, sociology culture. Taking into account that Armenian people are aboriginals, there is a possibility to consider spiritual and ethnic roots of Armenian state system’s origin.
07.00.01.0269 History of First Republic of Armenia (1918-1920): Final Report / In-te of History of Acad. of Sciences; Supervisor of studies G. A. Avetisian – 1995, 6p.
On the basis of discovered new documents have been illuminated some problems of social, economical, cultural life, political parties’ activity, internal policy of Armenia in 1918-1920.
07.00.01.0272 Armenian National and Liberation Movements in XIXc. and in the Beginning of XXc.: Final Report / In-te of History of Acad. of Sciences; Supervisor of studies A. S. Ambarian – 1995, 6p.
In 1992-1995 the following works have been studied: colonial policy of czarism in Eastern Armenia in XIXc. and the beginning of XXc., diaries of Yeremia and Aristakes Tevakants, political parties’ activity, national and liberation movements in Eastern Armenia in 1900-1914, social and political activities of Mkrtich Khrimian, national and liberation movements in Kilikia at the end of XIX and beginning of XX century, Armenian-Turkish cultural relations at the end of XIXc., and main problems about the liberation of western Armenians illuminated in “Armenia” newspaper (1885-1905).
07.00.01.0273 Demographic Processes in Eastern Armenia in XIXc. and at the Beginning of XXc.: Final Report / In-te of History of Acad. of Sciences; Supervisor of studies S. Kh. Alexanian – 1995, 6p.
On the basis of archives, statistical and published materials have been analyzed by main lines some aspects of stormy demographic processes in XIXc., beginning from 1992. A special consideration has been given to the economical, political, socio-psychological and cultural consequences of demographic changes stipulated by ethnic processes. Such problems, having political significance, as ethnic movements in both parts of Armenia, as a result of Russian-Persian and Russian-Turkish wars of XIX century, their principal prerequisites, tendencies of demographical process at the end of XIX-beginning of XX centuries, have been considered as well.
07.00.01.0275 Political Social-economical Life and Culture of Armenia in 1920-1941: Final Report / In-te of History of Acad. of Sciences; Supervisor of studies V. N. Kazakhetzian – 1995, 8p.
Principles of chronology and importance are in the basis of this work covering prewar (1920-1941) period in Armenia. In first section are covered years from 1920 to 1922, when Armenia was an independent Republic. In the second section is covered period of 1922-1941 when Armenia became a part of Soviet Union. In first two decades Armenia had some achievements in the areas of economy and culture. But agriculture was in bad condition. The vast masses of the population were subject to repression in 1930ies. The purpose of this work – truthful illumination of Soviet Armenia history in prewar years.
07.00.01.0277 Armenians in Social, Economical, Political and Cultural Life of Near East and Middle East: Final Report / In-te of Oriental Studies of Acad. of Sciences; Supervisor of studies L. G. Danegian – 1995, 7p.
Some areas of history and culture of Armenian community of Iran in XVII-XIX c. have been studied: a) Armenians in cultural life of Iran (XVII-XVIIIc.); b) Armenian community of Iran at the end of XIX-beginning of XX c.; c) “Daily Diary” of Eghia Musheghian. “Annals of cultural life of New Djuga” – rich source for study of history and culture of Armenian and Iranian peoples.
07.00.01.0278 Historical Geography and Historical Ethnography: Final Report / Yerevan State Un-ty; Supervisor of studies B. A. Harutunian – 1995, 17p.
The work was carried-out in two directions. First work – preparation of “History Atlas of Eastern Armenia” consisting of 40 maps. Atlas will illuminate political, economical and cultural life of eastern parts of Armenia (Artsakh, Utik) from ancient times to the origin and development of Republic of Nagorni Karabakh. The other work – “Vilayet Van in 1840-1917″ – historical, geographical and demographical research. In this work the administrative, political development and demographical movement of one of densely populated with Armenians territories of Western Armenia – Van – Vaspurakan. Both works have great scientific and political importance.
07.00.02.0281 Problems of Political History of Osman Empire: Final Report / In-te of Oriental Studies of Acad. of Sciences; Supervisor of studies R. G. Sahakian – 1995, 9p.
Principal problems of Osman Empire’s New History (XIX-beginning of XX c.) have been studied: reformatory movement in Turkey, its ideology, process of development, peculiarities of different stages and status of Christian nations. These problems have been illuminated in a new manner. By critical and analytical method and with scientific impartiality have been considered interrelations between ideological leaders of formed Turkish nation and other nations-citizens of Turkey, and their attempts for cooperation. Were elucidated activities and policy of Turkish reformators holding power in the country, their relations with “mladoturks”. The consequences in Armenians’ fortune after a political treaty concluded by Turkey in above-cited period have been commented in a new manner.
07.00.02.0282 Peculiarities of Social and Political Development of Turkey in 1980 ties: Final Report / In-te of Oriental Studies of Acad. of Sciences; Supervisor of studies R. A. Safrastian – 1995, 7p.
The study of modern history of Turkey is of great scientific and political importance. Sharp switches in policy and social life in Turkey are the result of ruling party’s policy. The goal of this policy – to make prowestern the economical and political system of Turkey. The principle of this policy – depreciation of government role and improvement of the personality as prerequisites for the development of free market relations. Practically, an attempt has been made to give a new breathing to the process of europeanization of Turkey. The same problem now experiences the Republic of Armenia. Thus, the experience of Turkey has an actual significance for us. Panturkist ideas and new transformations, in particular, the study of Turks’ unity doctrine, are of interest as well. In this work have been analysed the internal policy of Turkey during these years, main events-military coup d’etat in 1980, its consequences, adoption of a new Constitution, origin of new political parties, universal Parliamentary elections in 1983 and accession to power of “Motherland” party. In this work have been considered as well the activity of organizations and periodicals of Panturkist direction, activization in Turkey of islamists, especially “Refa” party.
07.00.01.0131 History of Social and Political Idea of Armenian Diaspora: Final Report / Department of History and Culture of Armenian Communities of Diaspora; Supervisor of studies K. L. Dallakian – 1996, 8p.
This subject covers the whole period of formation of Armenian Diaspora (1920- till today). In this work has been studied and summarized an information material covering 20-30-ties, has been realized a cartography of demographical displacements. Annotation of published works of Armenian diaspora in English, as well as annotation of published documents in Armenian diaspora concerning social and political situation in the Republic of Armenia of today, have been prepared as a subsidiary material for further studies. The main subject of these studies-courses of social life and idea, specific for transition period of diaspora, interrelations of these courses, problems of correlation of Armenians of Diaspora with adopted culture, the importance of “Armenia – Diaspora” connection for the creation and strengthening of national self-consciousness.
07.00.01.0053 Nakhidjevan in 1917-1921. History of Armenians Deportation and Seizure of this Area from Armenia: Final Report / Yerevan State Un-ty; Supervisor of studies E. A. Zograbian – 1997.
A work on book, concerning policy of Turkey, Azerbaijan and Iran, regarding Nakhidjevan district history of Nakhidjevan Armenians’ deportation, and seizure of this district from Armenia, has been completed. A significant part of this book has been assigned to kemalists activities on Moscow (February-March of 1921) and Kars (September-October of 1921) conferences.