Archive for September 2006

Romania Seeks to Boost Tourism Numbers

September 29, 2006

By Razvan Amariei for Southeast European Times in Bucharest

In 2004, 6.6 million foreign citizens entered Romania. The number increased by about 13 per cent compared to 2003, but only about a quarter of the visitors were tourists. Some experts believe potential tourists are still being kept away by the cost of travel in Romania, which is high in relation to the quality of services.

Hotel rates rose about 10 per cent this year. According to Lucia Morariu, the president of the Tourism Agencies National Association, the increase was due to inflation. Others, however, have charged that the new owners of Romania’s formerly state-owned hotels simply don’t know how to manage them, and customers are paying higher prices as a result.

Other problems facing would-be travellers include poor road infrastructure and a lack of tourist amenities in some areas. At the same time, seaside and mountain resorts present another type of problem — open-air bars and discotheques that play loud music deep into the night, interfering with the sleep of nearby hotel guests. Hoping to make the seaside more tourist-friendly, the environment ministry decided to order the removal of such establishments from the beachfronts, but then re-authorised some construction after officials realised that tourists need at least some beach-bars. Now state officials are at odds with their municipal counterparts, such as Constanta Mayor Radu Mazare, who is refusing to allow the new buildings to be constructed.

Romania also suffers from an image problem abroad, with many still viewing it as the country of Ceausescu, street children and stray dogs. The government hopes to change such perceptions, but has been hampered by a lack of marketing expertise. “We haven’t found people in Romania who had done such work, so we’ll have to call in some consultants from abroad,” Saptamina Financiara’ quoted Valeriu Turcan, head of the Governmental Strategies Agencies, as saying.

Despite the obstacles, authorities as well as tourism companies are optimistic, projecting that the number of foreign visitors will keep growing. German tourism giant TUI plans to sign an agreement with Bucharest officials to open an agency in Mamaia, a Romanian seaside resort. The company hopes to draw tourists to the Black Sea coast, the Danube Delta, the Carpathian resorts and the historical regions of Maramures, Bucovina and Transylvania.

Marius Crivtonencu, chief of the National Tourism Authority, hopes the Romanian resorts will attract 10 per cent more visitors this year, compared to 2004. The season has shifted from 15 May to 15 September to 1 May to 1 September, and the results have been noticeable. During a period when hotels formerly were closed, they are now packed with visitors — especially elderly tourists, who have come for the famous anti-aging Gerovital treatment. Foreigners, in fact, remain the tourist industry’s best hope for increased profits.

Investment opportunities in Serbia

September 29, 2006


European investors have ranked Serbia among the top 25 investment opportunities globally (1).

Serbia’s advantages include:

Strategic positioning for markets in Europe, Asia, and the Middle East
Duty Free access to the South East Europe Free Trade Zone of 60 million consumers
Only country outside the CIS with a free trade agreement with the Russian Federation
Not yet an EU member; greater flexibility and investment advantages

Lowest corporate profits tax rate in Europe

Skilled labor at a reasonable cost

Highest percentage of English language speakers in SE and Central Europe
Stable economy:

Sound monetary policy and fast implementation of key macro economic laws
Simplified foreign trade and foreign investment regulations
Facilitation of company operational and start up procedures, including residency regime for foreign nationals, business registration, and customs
(1) A.T. Kearney, 2003 Global FDI Confidence Index
 Investment Opportunities
Agribusiness in Serbia

Energy sector in Serbia

Automotive and Component Production in Serbia

IT Industry in Serbia

Electronic Industry in Serbia

Textile industry

Wood and Furniture Industry

Pharmaceutical Industry

What is the size of the sector?

- Accounted for 20.65% of total GDP and 40.91% of the manufacturing industry output in 2001
- Total revenues amounted to €3 billion in 2001
- Contributed to Serbian exports with 16% in the same year
- Employed around 155,000 people in 2002 – more than 10% of the workforce in Serbia
- Encompassed 3,269 companies in 2002
- Monthly net wage averaged €161 in 2003

How could you benefit from investing?

Natural Conditions
With more than 5 million hectares of first-class soil, favorable mild continental climate and restricted use of chemical fertilisers Serbia represents one of the Europe’s most attractive locations for production of high-quality healthy food.

Human Capital
Thorough education and technological skillness notwithstanding, workforce remains extremely low-cost compared to other transition economies, making the intellectual capital a number one competitive advantage.

Market Leverage
A combination of growing local demand for food and beverages, accounting for almost 50% of household budget, duty-free export to Russia and access to the Southeast Europe free trade zone enhances the rentability of investment in agribusiness.

Recognized Image
Not only do traditional export drivers, like raspberries, beef and pork, but also excellent fruit juices, beers and dairy products bolster the favorable reputation of Serbian agribusiness on the global market.

Quality Standards
Leading agribusiness companies boast HACCP and ISO quality accreditations thereby substantiating full commitment to achieving highest performance.

Who leads the way?

Greek ice-cream manufacturer Delta was among the first to locate production facilities in Serbia with €40 milIion investment back in 1998. In 2003 agribusiness alone attracted foreign investment worth almost €1 billion. Early last year Croatian Agrokor won the tender for the frozen foods producer Frikom paying €11 million to acquire the majority stake. This acquisition was followed by two strategic partnership agreements; Europe’s leading beer producers Interbrew and Carlsberg commited themselves to invest in Apatinska Pivara and Pivara Celarevo €326 million and €53 million respectively. Finally, Philip Morris and British American Tobacco privatized tobacco producers from Nis and Vranje in €562 million and €87 million worth deals.
Automotive and Component Production

What is the size of the sector?

In the late 80’s production of automobiles excedeed 200,000 units a year
Exports totaled $41 million in 2001
Employs around 38,000 workers in 2002 (2.66% of total workforce)
Comprised of 155 companies, out of which more than 70% are privately owned
Average monthly net wage amounted to €112 in 2003
How could you benefit from investing?

Respectable Tradition
Prior to imposing economic sanctions, local automotive companies had been involved in more than 200 joint ventures with leading international producers either as their components’ suppliers, or licensed car assemblers.

Cost Efficiency
Significantly lower labor and utility costs in comparison to major FDI recipients in Central and Eastern Europe safeguard excellent prospects of reaching targeted profitability.

Intellectual Capital
Over the years of cooperation with Western companies, domestic staff has received specific know-how and adapted itself to advanced technology and rigorous quality standards.

Market Potential
Duty-free export to Russia and access to the Southeast Europe free trade zone are coupled with the urgent necessity of domestic motor pool modernization, taking into account the extremely high age of vehicles averaging more than 12 years.

Quality and Infrastructure
The vast majority of companies have ISO 9001/9002 accreditations and preserved production facilities which could be utilized for serving growing demand.


The largest automotive company in Serbia Zastava from Kragujevac commenced production of FIAT based models of cars and trucks in 1955. During the 70’s and 80’s valve producer MIV had long-term arrangements with clients worldwide, Peugeot and Chrysler being the most prominent ones. Another components’ producer FAD was a supplier to Mercedes and Ford for a long time, while IDA produced braking and engine parts for GM and Opel brands, courtesy of joint venture with General Motors.

IT Industry in Serbia

What is the size of the sector?

Annual growth rate of 18.3% and a projected five-year CAGR (Compounded Annual Growth Rate) of 16.8%.
The value of the Serbian IT market in 2003 was estimated at USD 340 million.
1,408 IT companies. The ownership structure: 95% are domestic companies, 3% are with mixed ownership and 2% are foreign companies.
9.409 employed in 2003.
Net salary costs vary from 350 EUR to 850 EUR per month for qualified and experienced personnel. The overall salary cost of a programmer/systems expert is in the range 700-1,400 EUR per month.
Key Products and Offerings

Highly-skilled engineers who are competent in a broad range of methodologies, technologies and tools supporting efficient development of high quality software and systems integration. They have expertise in developing front-end, back-end and middle-ware components, but also are very proficient at listening to client requirements and creating tailored software and systems.

Serbian software developers assume either partial or full responsibility for a client’s daily information technology needs. In many cases, they manage and improve the client’s entire information technology process which includes applications, data centers, and networks. Serbian software development experience and expertise are applicable to a variety of business areas and solutions. Subcontract work undertaken is wide ranging and includes creative web design development work for European companies, subcontracting of employees to foreign firms for specific web enabled tasks and the development of technical hardware and software solutions for major international companies such as Philips Semiconductors, Carl Zeiss, Raytheon and NCR. These software and design firms are the core of what could become a much larger specialization in the future.

The industry focus to date has been on the development of customized products for specific industry applications for the local market with the larger companies offering a wider systems integration and full technical service approach. Today, modern hardware (LCD monitors, memory modules, toners cartridges for printers, etc) are made in Serbia.
How could you benefit from investing?

Human Capital
- In this sector, given the high education levels and young age profile, Serbia has a distinct English language proficiency advantage compared to other Eastern European countries.
- As a young industry, the IT sector does not suffer from the labor inflexibility of many traditional industries. Companies have confirmed no labor disruptions. The average age of staff is in the early thirties.
- Highly skilled workforce, with 70% having completed a university level of education.

Academic Framework
- Because of the openness of the region prior to the 1990s, the education standards in the technical departments of universities in Serbia benefited from greater exposure to Western developments than other countries in Eastern Europe.
- Students from a high-school specialized in Mathematics, Physics and Informatics have won an impressive number of prizes at the World Science Olympiads.
- Over 878 of all graduates in the area of electrical engineering, organizational sciences, and mathematics institutes in 2003 are specialized in computer sciences.

Legal Framework
Serbia has done a lot to align businesses in the IT sector closer with the standards of the EU. In order to aid the quick development of the Information Society, several important laws have been adopted:
• Electronic Signature Law
• Patent Law
• Trademark Law
• Copyright and Related Rights Law
• Legal Protection of Design Law
• Protection of Integrated Circuits Topographies Law
• Protection of personal data
• Protection of consumers
• Access to information
• Amended Criminal Code
The strategy of IS development is set to be finished by the end of 2005.

Business Incentives
• The lowest corporate profit tax in Europe – 10%.
• 10 year tax holiday for investments over CSD 600 million (app. € 7.4 million) and employment of more than 100 new workers.
• Tax credit for up to 10% of investment amount for investing in fixed assets.
• Tax relief equating to gross salary plus employer contributions for every newly employed worker during a period of 2 years.
• Accelerated depreciation of environmental, educational and computer equipment.
• Import of equipment and other assets as well as construction materials representing a foreign entity’s investment is exempt from customs duties.
• Import of raw materials, semi-finished and component parts carried out for the purpose of realization of a long-term production contract in cooperation with a foreign producer is exempt from customs and other import duties.
• The liberalization of property laws made it possible for foreigners to own real estate.

Who leads the way?

In addition to major multinationals such as Ericsson and Siemens, which are present in Serbia, a number of smaller European firms have established a presence in the country, both to expand their market reach and to develop products for the region.
FinSoft London and TeleTrader, originally from Vienna, both have more than 50 developers in Belgrade – that number swells to a hundred or more during peak production times.
Austrian S&T signed an agreement for the takeover of IT banking solutions provider SITO Inc. Information Systems Engineering and Design Company.
Blue Star is one of very few companies which has daily offerings of SDR memory modules in its portfolio. Together with Samsung, their strategic partner, Blue Star offers a wide range of TFT monitors, plasma and TFT TV sets. The company also produces VGA cards (ATI and Nvidia platforms), USB sticks (64MB-1024MB), memory cards (64MB-256MB), MP3 players and TV tuners.
Bozic i Sinovi has developed a partnership with a UK-based company, Gowigroup Ltd. and signed a long term annual contract worth L500,000.
Electronics Industry


- Low share in the GDP (1.1%) in 2001, but recorded the highest growth in 2002 (72.4%)
- Contributed to Serbian export with 2.5% in 2001
- Workforce encompassed 24,700 people, or 1.84% of the working population in 2002
- 1,320 companies registered in 2001, most of them (90%) privately owned
- Net monthly salary averaged €133 in 2003


Intellectual Base
High-class technical schools in Serbia, including the School of Electrical Engineering in Belgrade which is widely regarded as one of the best in the world, yield the annual average graduate output of around 2,700 and percentage of university and two-year college employees in the sector reaches 13%.

International Links
Over decades most large Serbian electronics producers fostered extensive partnerships with blue-chip telecommunications and electronics companies worldwide.

Low Overheads
Given that the average monthly net wage of Serbian workers stands at merely one third vis-?-vis their Hungary and Czech Republic counterparts, the average savings on an annual salary bill for a 300 person operation in the sector will exceed €1 million.

Market Perspective
By setting-up business in Serbia an electronics producer may capitalize on duty-free export agreement with Russia, Southeast Europe free trade zone and burgeoning local demand, with electronics imports which is sevenfold higher than exports.

Local Sourcing
Large free capacities – the result of economic sanctions in the 90’s, could be utilized for serving both local and global demand with a full range of electronics products, while the strong domestic R&D platform may provide active support in developing advanced technologies.


Major producer of consumer electronics and home appliances in the Balkans EI Holding Corporation Nis boasts long tradition of collaboration in the form of joint ventures and industrial contracts with world top companies like Alcatel (telephony), Siemens (HF transmission), Bull (computers), Philips (color picture tubes) and Sagem (teleprinters). VF Holding, leading producer of radio, TV and telecommunication equipment, was established in 1990 as a joint venture with Siemens which eventually became the sole owner in 2001. Another joint venture, between Alcatel (56%) and Pupin (44%) – Alcatel Pupin Yugoslavia currently employs around 40 people with an asset base of almost €10 million.
Textile Industry

- Estimated share in GDP amounted to 10% in 2002
- In the same year exports reached $196 million, 70% of which absorbed by the EU market
- Employed around 100,000 people or 13% of the industrial workforce in 2002
- Dominated by private companies – 77% out of total of 1,185 in 2000
- The lowest average net monthly salary within the Serbian economy – €54 in 2002


Workforce Quality
In spite of respectable professional experience and technical skillness, gained through 15 years of work within the sector, an average textile employee in Serbia still receives merely one half to one third of the salary paid in neighboring countries, which results in high international competitiveness.

Partnership Culture
Most large textile producers in Serbia developed deep-rooted cooperation in the form of cut-manufacture-trim operations with Western companies successfully meeting their rigorous quality standards.

Cost Competitiveness
In addition to low-cost labor force, foreign investors in Serbia could also benefit from moderate utility costs and favorable tax regime envisaging numerous incentives as well as the lowest corporate profit tax rate in Europe.

Market Accessibility
Investing in Serbian textile industry means not only the opportunity to serve rising local demand, currently accounting for 8% of household budget – higher than in most transition countries, but also to gain duty-free access to Russian and Southeast Europe markets.

Geographic Position
Owing to Serbia’s strategic position at the intersection of Pan European corridors no. 7 and no. 10, the proximity of the Adriatic Sea and a dense transportation network, it takes only few hours to reach all major export and import markets.


A great number of large socially owned textile companies are yet to be privatized and one of the first to find a strategic partner was a trading company Ateks purchased by Italian Fibest at a public auction for approximately €8 million. Within the private sector jeans producer Oktan Pro represents an emerging breed of flexible and customer-oriented Serbian companies, currently exporting most of its production under the world famous brand names, such as Mango and Zara. In the mid 2003 Azira Fashion, majority owned by Italian Gruppo Real, the world’s third largest lingerie producer, launches production at Backa Palanka-based company Marina planning to employ 200 workers by 2005.
Wood and Furniture Industry

- Stable growth of production in recent years reaching 3.63% of industrial output in 2002
- Generates positive net foreign trade effect with $89 million of exports in the same year
- Comprised of 2,758 companies – 90% privately owned
- With around 33,000 employees contributed to total workforce with 2.51% in 2002
- Net monthly salary averaged €80 in 2003


Market Potential
Relocating to Serbia enables furniture producers to serve rising domestic demand, fuelled by the steady growth of household income, and seize the opportunity to capitalize on free trade agreements with adjacent countries and the Russian Federation.

Low Overheads
A combination of low average wages, ranging between €55 in wood processing and €90 in furniture production, moderate electricity, telephone and water costs, along with the lowest corporate profit tax rate in Europe enhances the prospects of achieving higher profit margins than in other FDI recipient countries in the region.

Human Capital
Qualified and experienced workforce, with almost 10% of university graduates engaged in furniture production, requires minimum training to catch up with up-to-date technologies and operation procedures.

Resource Base
Serbia abounds in high-quality oak and beech forests which cover approximately Ľ of its territory and represent an ample raw base for both primary and furniture production.

Geographic Position
Its strategic position at the intersection of Pan European corridors no. 7 and no. 10, linking southern and central parts of the continent, makes Serbia easily and quickly accessible from all major import and export markets.


As a hint of its return to Serbian market after a decade’s hiatus, Swedish multinational furniture producer Ikea has recently signed an agreement with Vranje-based company Simpo providing for delivery of mattresses worth €3 million.

Energy sector in Serbia

In order to have uniform development policy in the field of energy and provide all necessary conditions for permanent and equalized development strategy government of the Republic of Serbia has enacted a new law.

According to expectations, reforms in energy shall provide pre-conditions for more efficient operation of all subjects dealing with energy business, and corresponding institutional changes should improve their business performance. This primarily refers to the economic effects and making adjustments in order to meet market competition.

Energy sector at glance

- Serbia has produced in 2003 a total of 30 108 GWh of electricity
- Most of the electricity is produced by the thermal power plants. In 2003 thermal plants account for 72.7% of the overall electricity production in Serbia. Hydro-plants produce the remaining 27.3% of the electricity.
- A new law was passed in July ensuring more competitive energy sector primarily aimed towards better overall satisfaction of end users.
- Energy Agency will act as an independent regulatory authority ensuring healthy development and implementation of national energy development strategy.
- Households account for 58.84% of electricity consumption in Serbia.

Possibilities for development

Serbia is experiencing slight changes in the energy consumption. It has become evident, as the consumption of electricity in winter is slightly lower, whereas in the summer consumption increases. This can be explained by more efficient heating and increased use of cooling equipment.

Serbia still has not maximally utilized the renewable energy sources even though more than a quarter of the energy comes from hydro-plants. In particular smaller communities could benefit from small-scale micro-hydro-plants or wind powered plants.

Over time, it can be expected that role of gas powered plants will increase. This is primarily because of availability of gas from Russia, with whom Serbia has a free trade agreement.


Based on commercial contracts 1 667 GWh of electric power was imported, what is by 46 per cent less than in the previous year. For the first time after 11 years, we signed a contract for commercial exports of 394 GWh.

The power generation in electric power plants of Serbia and hydro power plant Piva was 34 192 GWh. The power generation of power generating facilities of EPS was 33 436 GWh, and if the share of thermal power plants from Kosmet is excluded, (Kosovo A and Kosovo B ), the output was 30 108 GWh.
Thermal power plants and thermal power-heating plants of EPS generated 24 318 GWh and achieved the greatest share (72.7%) in the total achieved annual power generation of EPS.

The hydro power plants of EPS generated 9 118 GWh, which has been, due to extreme drought, the lowest annual power generation, and therefore the lowest share (only 27.3%) in the total power generation of EPS within the last ten years.

Although a record power generation was achieved, as it had been increasing for four years repeatedly, it was still insufficient to meet the consumers’ needs. Actually, the gross consumption was 34 340 GWh of electric power. The public companies for distribution received 31 951 GWh and 1 160 GWh was supplied to direct consumers. The share of households in the total consumption was 58.84%. The maximum monthly consumption was realized in January (3 741 GWh), and the lowest in June (2 196 GWh). A peak hourly load of 6 564 MW, was marked at 6 p.m. on 13 January.

Compared with the previous year, electricity consumption for heating of premises during the winter months was reduced, but, on the other hand, it was increased for cooling purposes during the summer period.

Key benefits

Exceptional cost efficiency – low labor and utility costs, combined with the lowest corporate tax rates in Central and Eastern Europe and increasing productivity to underpin profitability.

High intellectual capital – Technologically advanced, well educated and highly cost competitive labor force available.

Linguistic skills – The best command of the English language in Central and Eastern Europe by a very wide margin, according to a survey by Gallup International.

Strong tradition in energy business – companies from Serbia, in particular those private are predominantly export oriented and represent real partners when it comes to exporting. Adding this to numerous free trade agreements, Serbia becomes an attractive location for outsourcing and that demands performance on competitive market.
Pharmaceutical Industry

What is the size of the sector?
• The sector accounts for 3.24% of the total industry (2004)
• The value of sector’s annual production is €308 mill. (2004)
• Annual growth of the sector in 2004 was 15%
• Employs around 6,000 workers in 2004
• Comprised of 49 companies (production of pharmaceutical products)
• Average monthly net wage amounted to €326 in 2004
How could you benefit from investing?
Production capabilities
Generic drugs are taking on a much greater role in the industry. This trend has created a tremendous business opportunity for pharmaceutical companies who serve the “bottom of the pyramid”. Serbian pharmaceutical companies have strategically positioned themselves to take advantage of the mentioned trends. Many of the Serbian pharmaceutical companies have invested substantial capital into development and are capable of producing quality low-cost generic drugs. If short of in-house manufacturing capacities, want to outsource small-batch production, reduce manufacturing costs, or delay/avoid capital investments in manufacturing, one should consider manufacturing in Serbia.
Cost Efficiency
Significantly lower labor and utility costs in comparison to major FDI recipients in Central and Eastern Europe safeguard excellent prospects of reaching targeted profitability. The average monthly salary in the industry in 2004 was €326.
Intellectual Capital
Pharmaceutical industry is the one with the best qualification structure of all industries in Serbia. The number of collage and university graduates as percentage of total number of employees in the sector is around 30%. Moreover, medical universities produce close to a thousand of university graduates annually. This creates an excellent base for recruitment of educated workforce.
Market Potential
Decades of presence in the Russian market has built trust and loyalty towards Serbian drugs and pharmaceuticals. Serbia enjoys a FTA with the Russian Federation which applies to almost all drugs and medical devices. Furthermore, based on the free trade agreements signed with other Southeast European countries a producer is entitled to market its goods to a 60 mill people market customs free.
Commitment to Quality
Most of the manufacturers within the sector comply with ISO 9000 quality system. Some of them acquired ISO 14000 certificate, while the leaders of the industry comply with GMP, GLP and GCP.
Companies like Hemofarm and Galenika, which have invested substantial capital into development, are expanding the frontiers of pharmaceutical industry in the Region. Other companies like the Zdravlje Actavis (owned by Actavis company from Iceland) which is one of the leading manufacturers of generics in Serbia provide access to low-cost drugs.
Hemofarm is a company with decades of experience in drug production. Today, the Group comprises a parent company and 21 subsidiaries, 12 in SCG and the rest abroad. Galenika has been producing drugs for 60 years. It was established in 1945, and soon after became the fourth company in the world producing penicillin. In 1991 it has entered a JV with ICN, which ended in 1999. Currently, the company accounts for 30% of the domestic market.

Kuwait tanker operator to order four mega vessels

September 29, 2006

KUWAIT CITY –  The state-owned Kuwait Oil Tanker Co. (KOTC) will soon order four giant oil tankers expected to cost some $500 million, chairman Abdullah Al Rumi said Wednesday.

The new order was approved by the national oil conglomerate Kuwait Petroleum Corp. (KPC), and will be offered in a tender soon, Rumi told the official KUNA news agency.

Each has a capacity of 300,000 tons and will replace old tankers in the company’s fleet of 24 vessels.

KOTC signed three contracts in 2004 with South Korean companies to build seven new vessels at a cost of $540 million. Delivery is expected to start next year.

They include two very large crude carriers (VLCC), two liquefied petroleum gas tankers, and three petroleum products vessels.

Established in 1957 by a group of Kuwaiti private investors, KOTC was taken over by the government in 1979. Last year it transported some 24 million tons, half of it to the Far East, India, and Africa.


September 29, 2006  

Greece, even though it joined European Union since 1981 and has been accepted in all major transnational organizations; it hasn’t been as equally adept in competing in the world economic arena and its internal market was in most respects a kind of protected agora for some major businesses. This is changing over the past year in a speedy way that will most certainly have regional ramifications, since the international capital is going to use Greece as a base in order to establish offshoots in South Eastern European states and the Black Sea ones.


 Starting from the banking sector one major French bank-Credit Agricole( is set to buy in the coming days the Greek Commercial Bank( for a reputed price of 3,5 billion Euro. It is interesting to note that this is the biggest takeover of a Greek bank in the country’s recent history and places the French capital in advantageous placement in the Balkans since the Greek bank is already positioned in Romania and Bulgaria and has a large costumer base.
Moreover the National Bank of Greece(www.nbg) has recently acquired 46% of the  Turkish Finasbank( for almost 2.2 billion Euro and with plans of gaining stakeholder control(Over 51%) within 2007. It is the biggest ever Greek investment in Turkey despite perennial relations between the two states and clearly indicates the goals that the Greek bank has in relation with regional expansion. Furthermore NBG wants to acquire the Romanian deposit bank CEC( that has around 7,500 employees and 1400 outlets across Romania. Simultaneously moves are being made towards the Serbian Vojvodjanska( which is on for sale by the Serbian authorities within the next few months. Finally NBG would be more that welcome to examine the Egyptian Alexandria bank( thus achieving the status of a true regional bank conglomerate. It is obvious that the heads in NBG are considering themselves capable of asserting a peripheral role within the European banking world and at the same time being able to withstand the increased competition.

 Another Greek financial institution Marfin bank( recently sold its 31,5% to Dubai Investment Group( a large Arabian financial conglomerate that is eying on the underdeveloped Balkan markets throughout its cooperation with Marfin. Other developments in the banking sector include the plans of Eurobank( of expanding to Poland with the opening of 300 outlets in the next years and the buyout of 10%of Bank of Cyprus( by the bank of Piraeus ( Pundits expect within the next three years only three to four independent banks to remain in Greece while the rest are going to become affiliated to either foreign or domestic enterprises.


 In other fields now such as the electronic sector the Greek company Intracom( sold last month its telecommunition sector to the Russian colossus Systema(, a company that was founded in 1993 and it is already the largest in the electronic and telecommunications sector in the CIS.
In the food industry a new group has been formed called VIVARTIA and it is the combination of Chipita(, Goodys( and Delta Holdings( along with another dozen food related companies. The new enlarged enterprise will the largest in the Balkans with an annual turnover of over 1 billion Euro and will employ some 18,000 employees. In a European scale it will be among the top 40 in its field. Simultaneously industrial giants such as the French Danone ( and the Swiss Nestle ( are building up their operations in Greece and another one, the Dutch Friesland ( inaugurated a new yogurt production facility in the city of Patras in southern Greece. This concentration of large companies will have ultimately as a side effect the elimination of the middle sized ones that cannot compete in the marketing or operational methods of their largest antagonists.

 In the sector of commerce globalization has made its entrance in Greece with the welcoming image of high profile European chain stores and their impossible to resist offers. Already last year the British Dixon electronic chain store( has bought the Greek Kotsovolos stores( with immediate plans of investing in Bulgaria and Romania under the new management. Continuing the German multinational Media Markt( has made its presence felt especially to the Greek owned electronic chain stores by eliminating competition with its offers and its new marketing techniques. Finally the French Leroy Merlin( has set foot in the Greek DIY market as well as the French bookstore chain FNAC(
  Another German supermarket chain called Plus Supermarkets is set to make an entrance in early 2007 and has already drafted plans for a total investment of 600 Euro in the Greek market, which is steadily becoming foreign oriented in the past few years as far as ownership is concerned. Supermarkets like the French Carrefour( the German Lidl( have acquired large market segments and expand hastily into the Greek periphery like small provisional towns.  The Athenian now commercial world has seen the birth of two mega shopping malls the first one called The Mall( and in Thessaloniki the Mediterranean Cosmos( . The former was constructed by the Greek property company Lamda development( which is controlled by the richest Greek –Spyros Latsis-. Already 50% of The Mall has being sold to the British bank HSBC( for around 450 million Euro whilst the Mediterranean Cosmos is being managed by the British as well Lampert Smith Hampton properties.


The Greek shipping sector is still growing strong nowadays and there are some notable developments in the internal Greek market. The Chinese company COSCO( has already acquired container logistic outlets in the port of Piraeus and it already views the port as its main destination for container cargo in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. The port authority of Piraeus ( has plans of collaborating with the Chinese as well as with the Israeli navigation company ZIM( in expanding the existing container facilities in order to be able to serve the Southern Eastern European region. Moreover during spring 2007 Carnival cruises ( the American cruising company is set to make Piraeus its embarkation port for cruises ranging across the East Med. Easy Cruise ( the latest company of the famous Greek Stelios Hadjioannou is negotiating its entrance for Aegean cruises that are going to target young people and middle class people that were not into the cruising fashion but it is assumed that they are going to be lured by the low prices the Easy Cruise concept is going to introduce.

Developments have occurred in this sector as well and already the Greek telephone and internet provider Forthnet( has been acquired by the Icelandic fund Novator  Equities ( which is an energetic fund as far as acquisitions are concerned in Eastern Europe mainly.  Moreover the Greek mobile telephony provider TIM( was bought by the American funds APAX Partners( and Texas Pacific Group( for around 1.6 billion Euros and the markets are anxious to whom this funds are going to resell this company within the next few months. The same American funds have bought Q Telecom a mobile and land telephony provider for 325 million Euro but they do not intend to merge TIM and Q Telecom, instead the most probableoutcome would be to resell those two companies in different buyers.

Within the coming months the government plans on the fate of OTE ( the state telecom company where the government has a 38% stake; are going to be unveiled and maga companies such as French Telecom( and the Spanish Telephonica( are already on the move. Also the Athens International Airport ( in which the state has a 55% stake is set for privatization through the stock market within early 2007. Finally the Agricultural Bank of Greece( which is mainly controlled by state entities and has a market capitalization of almost 4 billion Euro is on the verge of being fully privatized. Moreover during the past decade large capital accumulation has occurred in the Greek shipping sector that is going sooner or latter to use the weight of its international assets in the upcoming upturn of the Greek economy from the state to the private sector. As far as the regional implications are concerned, the profitable Balkan companies are soon going to become targets of the foreign capital mainly throughout the Greek subsidiaries and quite possibly for the first time since the 19th century the Geopolitical Balkan sphere is going to homogenize geoeconomically as well. Time will tell though.
www.balkanalysis &Ioannis Michaletos, All Rights Reserved

Greek-American Community

September 28, 2006

A Greek American is a citizen of the United States of Greek heritage or descent. According to the 2000 U.S. Census Report, there were 1,153,295 people of Greek heritage living in the United States that year, while according to the State Department in 2005 an estimated 3,000,000 Americans residents in the United States claim Greek descent[1]. 365,435 Americans spoke Greek at home. Greek Americans have a heavy concentration in New York City (most notably in Astoria, in the NYC borough of Queens), Detroit, and Chicago. Tarpon Springs, Florida is also home to a large Greek-American community.
A young Greek-American immigrant on Ellis Island, New York late 19th early 20th century – Hulton ArchiveThe first Greek known to have arrived on U.S. soil was a man named Don Theodoro, who landed on Florida with the Narváez expedition in 1528 [2][3]. He died during the expedition, as did most of his companions.

In 1592 Greek captain Juan de Fuca ( Ioannis Fokas or Apostolos Valerianos,) sailed up the Pacific Coast in search of the fabled Northern Passage between the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean. He reported discovering a body of water that was later identified as the strait that today bears his name. The Juan de Fuca Strait forms part of the International Boundary between the United States and Canada.

In 1768, about 500 Greeks from Smyrna, Crete and Mani settled in New Smyrna, Florida (near present-day New Smyrna Beach). The colony was unsuccessful, and the settlers moved to St. Augustine, Florida in 1776, where their traces were lost to history.[4][5]

The first significant Greek community to develop was in New Orleans during the 1850s. By 1866 the community was numerous and prosperous enough to have a Greek consulate and the first Greek Orthodox church in the United States.[6]. During that period, most Greek immigrants to the New World came from Asia Minor, and those Aegean islands still under Ottoman rule. By 1890, there were almost 15,000 Greeks living in the U.S.

Immigration picked up in the 1890s, mostly because economic opportunity in the U.S., displacement caused by the hardships of Ottoman rule, the Balkan Wars and World War I. 450,000 Greeks arrived to the States between 1890 and 1917, most working in the cities of the Northeast and smaller numbers hired labor for the railroads and mines of the American West; another 70,000 arrived between 1918 and 1924.

Greek immigration, contrasted with most other European immigrantion to the US, at this time was over 90% male (Italian and Irish immigration which averaged 50% to 60% male). Many Greek immigrants expected to work and return to their homeland after earning capital and dowries for their families. Two factors changed attitudes and facilitated permanent immigration. 1) Loss of homeland: In 1913 at the conclusion of the Balkan Wars, the home towns of 60,00 Greeks in America were converted to Bulgarian territory, and in 1923 the homes of approximately 250,000 Greeks in America were converted from Ottoman to Turkish territory and in both cases these Greeks were de jure denaturalized from those homelands and lost the right of return and their familes were made refugees. 2) The first widely implimented US immigration limits against Europeans were made in 1923, creating an impetus for immigrants to apply for citizenship, bring their families and permanently settle in the U.S. Less than 30,000 arrived between 1925 and 1945, many of whom were “picture brides” for single Greek men.[7]

The events of the early 1920′s also provided the stimulus for the first permanent national Greek American religious and civic organizations.

Greeks again began to arrive in large numbers after 1945, fleeing the economic devastation caused by World War II and the Greek Civil War. From 1946 until 1982, approximately 211,000 Greeks emigrated to the United States. These later immigrants were less influenced by the powerful assimilationst pressures of the 1920′s and 1930′s and revitalized Greek American identity, especially in areas such as Greek language media.

After the 1981 admission of Greece to the European Union, numbers fell to an average of less than 2,000 annually. In recent years, Greek immigration to the United States has been minimal; in fact net migration has been towards Greece. Over 72,000 U.S. citizens currently live in Greece (1999); most of them are Greek Americans.

The predominant religion among Greeks and Greek-Americans is Eastern Orthodox Christianity. There are also a number of Americans who descend from Greece’s large Sephardic and Romaniote Jewish communities.

The popular 1970s show Kojak featured Telly Savalas as Greek-American police detective Theo Kojak, and his brother George as Detective Stavros. Kojak was originally supposed to be Polish (hence the name), but this was changed to match Savalas’ profile.
The 2002 comedy film My Big Fat Greek Wedding portrayed the love story of a Greek-American woman (portrayed by Greek Canadian Nia Vardalos) and a non-Greek-American man. It also examines the protagonist’s troubled love/hate relationship with her cultural heritage and value system. The movie spawned an unsuccessful TV series, My Big Fat Greek Life.
The Famous Teddy Z was an acclaimed but short-lived TV series about a fictional talent agent named Teddy Zakalakis, portrayed by Jon Cryer.
The TV series Full House was about a family that included Greek-American Uncle Jesse, portrayed by John Stamos. Jesse’s Greek dad was also recurring character.
The Greek Restaurant was a recurring sketch in the early years of Saturday Night Live. More recently, Tina Fey has often joked about her Greek heritage on the show.
Tom’s Restaurant, a Greek-American owned business, has become one of the symbols of urban New York life.
Elektra Natchios is a Marvel Comics superhero, portrayed by Jennifer Garner in the 2005 movie Elektra.
In the 1973 blockbuster The Exorcist, Jason Miller starred as Greek-American Father Damien Karras, one of the priests who exorcised young Regan. In one scene, Karras’ mother, played by Greek actress Vasiliki Maliaros, is listening to a Greek radio station broadcasting the song Ιστορία μου αμαρτία μου (My Story, My sin) by the late popular Greek singer Rita Sakellariou.
Tommy Lee, drummer for Motley Crüe, is Greek-American.

There are hundreds of regional, religious and professional Greek-American organizations. Some of the largest and most notable include:

AHEPA — the American Hellenic Educational Progressive Association, is the largest community organization of Greek Americans. It was founded in Atlanta, Georgia in 1922 during a period of anti-Greek attacks by the Ku Klux Klan. Its current membership exceeds 18,000.
The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America is the religious organization most closely associated with the Greek-American community. It was established in 1921, and is under the leadership of the Orthodox Church of Constantinople. The church operates the Greek Orthodox Youth of America (GOYA), the largest Greek youth group in the United States.
The American Hellenic Institute, a lobbying group for Greek Americans.
The Council of Hellenes Abroad is a Greek government sponsored umbrella organization for Greek immigrant organizations worldwide.
The PAIDEIA organization- USA is an organization promoting the preservation of Hellenic education and culture in the United States.
The National Hellenic Student Association is a PAIDEIA sponsored University based organization promoting Hellenic culture on university campuses.
Many topika somatea or clubs representing the local regional homeland of Greeks in America. Among the scores of such clubs, larger ones include the Pan Macedonian Association, the Panepirotic Federation, the Pan Cretan Association, the Pan Pontian Federation of U.S.A-Canada and several associations of refugees from areas in the former Ottoman territories.


Jennifer Aniston (1969 – ) Golden Globe and Emmy Award-winning film/television actress, perhaps best known for her role on the sitcom Friends[1]
John Aniston[2]
Tia Bella[3]
Dennis Boutsikaris
Angela Bowie[4]
Paula Cale[5]
George Chakiris[6]
Michael Chiklis[7]
Michael Constantine
Nick Dennis
Olympia Dukakis[8]
Tina Fey[9]
Zach Galifianakis
Angie Harmon[10]
Lindsay Hartley[11]
Marilu Henner[12]
Benny Hinn[13]
Melina Kanakaredes[14]
Andreas Katsulas[15]
George Maharis[16]
Demetri Martin[17]
Maria Menounos[18]
Andy Milonakis[19]
Elizabeth Perkins[20]
Chris Sarandon[21]
Telly Savalas[22]
George Savalas[23]
Alexander Scourby, actor and narrator
Amy Sedaris[24]
Jamie-Lynn Sigler[25]
Marina Sirtis[26]
John Stamos[27]
Mena Suvari (1979 – ) film actress (“American Pie”, “American Beauty”)[28]
Rita Wilson[29]
Billy Zane[30]
Lisa Zane[31]


Kary Antholis, Senior Vice President for Miniseries at HBO
George Argyros, founder of real estate company Amel & Affiliates[93]
Elias Betzios Born June 21, 1926, founder and CEO of Betzios Pizza, Ellios Petsapayia Don’t tell the Chancellor to cancel lunch with young investment bankers for you. Don’t tell Archbishop Anastasios what to do. Don’t leave just because speaker has no tie. Don’t call a low interest loan to the church a donation.
Jason Calacanis, young entrepreneur & founded of Weblogs, Inc.
John Calamos, founder of Calamos Investments
Michael Capellas, (Greek Father) terminal CEO of MCI & Compaq
John Catsimatidis, USA 34th wealhtiest, Red-Apple, Gristides, Refineries, Banks
Tom Carvel1, founder of the Carvel franchise
Philip Christopher, President of Audiovox Communications Corp
Christos Cotsakos, co-founder of E*Trade
Nicholas Davatzes, president and CEO of A&E Television Networks
Demoulas Brothers, founders of the DeMoulas’ Market Basket
Jamie Dimon, CEO of JPMorgan Chase
Peter Diamandis, magazine entrepreneur, founder of the International Space University
Elena Ford, Ford Motor Company executive. (Greek Father)
Jim Gianopoulos, Fox President
Bill Jemas, former publisher of Marvel Comics & former executive vice president of Marvel Entertainment Group
Peter Karmanos, Jr., founder, president & CEO of Compuware and owner of the NHL team Carolina Hurricanes
Ted Leonsis Vice Chair of AOL
George P. Mitchell, original developer of The Woodlands,
Peter M. Nicholas Cofounder Boston Scientific Corporation
Alexander Pantages, vaudeville and early motion picture producer and impresario
Constantine Papadakis, president of Drexel University
Greg Papadopoulos, senior vice president and CTO officer of Sun Microsystems Inc.
Peter Peterson, (Petropoulos) ex CEO Bell&Howell, Lehman Bros, Chair Council on Foreign Relns, chair BlackStone, Nixon Commerce Scy
Ted Phillips, president & CEO of the NFL team Chicago Bears
John Rigas, founder of Adelphia Communications Corporation
Peter Scalchunes, founder and EVP of Scales Industrial Technologies
William Scalchunes, founder and CEO of Scales Industrial Technologies
Stratton Sclavos, president & CEO of Verisign
Charles Skouras1, movie magnate, president of Fox Coast West & National Pictures
George Skouras1, movie magnate, president of United Artists
Spyros Skouras1, movie magnate, president of 20th Century Fox
Alex Spanos, California realty magnate, chaired Amer Bible Society
Leo Stefanos, inventor of DOVEBAR®
William Tavoulareas, president of Mobil Oil Corporation
Anthony Thomopoulos, Television Executive
Chris P. Tomaras, Entrepreneur and Philanthropist, President of the Council of Hellenes Abroad (Americas)[32]
Georgios Tsaoussis, founder and past CEO of Scales Industrial Technologies
Munelaos Tzurlios, Born December 21,1935. Skoplje blue eyes. founder and past CEO of Allocca Pizza current CEO Astron 15-59-144 Candles Bring back Fr Nikolaos Kouvaris
P. Roy Vagelos, former Chairman and CEO of Merck “Most Admired USA CEO”
Ed Zander, CEO of Motorola and former president of Sun Microsystems (Greek Mother)


Patricia Field – fashion designer[33]
James Galanos – fashion designer[34]
Peter Speliopoulos – vice President, DKNY design[35]
Patrick Tatopoulos – special effects & creature designer[36]
Dean Tavoularis – Academy Award winner for Best Art Direction (“Godfather ΙΙ”)[37]
John Varvatos – fashion designer[38]
Nick Verreos – American fashion designer[39]


Alexandra Cassavetes, director, daughter of John Cassavetes
John Cassavetes1, movie director
Nick Cassavetes – movie director[40]
George Pan Cosmatos1, film director, Tombstone, Rambo: First Blood Part II
Milton Katselas, director & Hollywood acting teacher
Elia Kazan1, movie director, two times Academy Award winner for Gentleman’s Agreement and On the Waterfront, A Streetcar Named Desire, Viva Zapata, East of Eden
Gregory Markopoulos, film director, New American Cinema of the 1960s
Andrew Moskos, producer/owner of Boom Chicago
Alexander Payne, Academy award winning movie director
Phedon Papamichael Director/Cinematographer
Alexis Poledouris – theater director
Andy Sidaris, film director of cult B-movie films
Penelope Spheeris, director, Wayne΄s world


Alden Partridge Colvocoresses, USA (Col. Ret.), developer of the first satellite map of the United States
George Colvocoresses, commander of the Saratoga during the American Civil War[94]
George Partridge Colvocoresses, led a distinguished military career rising to the rank of Admiral
George Dilboy, first Greek-American to receive US Army Medal of Honor
Charles Moskos, leading military sociologist in the US Military. Author of Greek Americans: Struggle and Success.
William Pagonis, retired three-star U.S. Army General & Chairman of the Board/Director for Railamerica, Inc.
George Sirian, Served in the US Navy with distinction for nearly fifty years
Peter G. Tsouras, retired Lieutenant Colonel in the United States Army


Kristi Lauren Glakas – Miss Virginia 2006[41]
Joey Hart (1985 – ) Penthouse model[42]
Maria Lekkakos – Miss Massachusetts 2003[43]
Becky and Jessie O’Donohue -American Idol contestant and model[44]
Suzi Simpson – model, actress and aspiring screenwriter[45]


Maurice Abravanel – conductor[46]
Teddy Andreadis, keyboardist
The Andrews Sisters – singers[47]
Art Alexis – singer/songwriter/guitarist. aka Art Alexakis from the band Everclear (Greek Father)
Annette Artani – singer/songwriter[48]
John Cacavas, composer & conductor
Maria Callas – considered one of the greatest opera sopranos of all time[49]
Kelly Clarkson – American Idol (Season 1) winner[50]
Greg Dulli – musician[51]
The Fiery Furnaces – indie rock band[52]
Diamanda Galás – performance artist, vocalist, and composer[53]
Steven Karidoyanes – composer, broadcaster and conductor with Plymouth Philharmonic Orchestra[54]
Wayne Kramer – guitarist for Motor City Five[55]
Tommy Lee – heavy metal drummer[56]
Constantine Maroulis – singer/stage actor/American Idol (Season 4) finalist[57]
Dimitris Mitropoulos – world renowned symphony conductor[58]
Becky O’Donohue – singer and American Idol (Season 5) semi-finalist[59]
Tony Orlando – singer[60]
Johnny Otis – rhythm and blues musician[61]
Shuggie Otis – rock, blues & funk guitarist and songwriter[62]
Basil Poledouris – film composer[63]
Zoë Poledouris – composer/singer
Jim Sclavunos – drummer for Nick Cave & the Bad Seeds[64]
Derek Sherinian – virtuoso rock and jazz fusion keyboardist
Chris Trousdale (1985 – ) singer, former Dream Street member[65]
Tatiana Troyanos – mezzo – soprano[66]
The Vanity Set – alternative/rebetiko rock band[67]
Jim Verraros (1983 – ) singer/entertainer, one of the top 10 finalists in the first season of American Idol[68]
Yanni – New Age musician[69]
Yannimon- Yannis Panagiotis Singer,Songwriter, Multi-instrumentalist Sponge Docks Tarpon Springs Florida USA

Christopher Makos, photographer for Calvin Klein, Esquire & Andy Warhol
George Tames, photographer for the New York Times from 1945-1985.
Panagiotis (Peter) Mitoulas, documenatry, fine art photographer. Born 02/21/1976 in Toronto, Canada. Featured in numerous publications in North America, South America and Europe


Spiro Agnew1, former Vice President of the United States (Greek father)
Art Agnos, former mayor of San Francisco
Phil Angelides, state treasurer of California GOAL/VOITHIA Archaphellinizon
George Argyros, US ambassador to Spain
Shelley Berkley Member of Congress (Greek Sephardic Jewish mother)
Michael Bilirakis, congressman from Florida.
Helen Boosalis, Mayor of Lincoln NE
John Brademas Former Member of Congress and Former President of New York University, former chair of Fed Reserve Bank of NY, (Episcopalean, Greek father, English mother)
George Christopher1, former mayor of San Francisco
Michael Dukakis, former governor of Massachusetts; 1988 Democratic Presidential Candidate
Nick Galifianakis, former Representative D-NC
George Gekas, former congressman from Pennsylvania
Theodore Kanavas, Republican State Senator from Brookfield, Wisconsin.
Ron Klink, former Representative from Pennsylvania,
Tom C. Korologos, U.S. Ambassador to Belgium, Reagan lobbyist
Andy Manatos, former Assistant Secretary of Commerce under LBJ
Nicholas Mavroules, Congressman from Massachusetts
Sylvia Mathews, National Economic Commission staff
John Negroponte, United States Director of National Intelligence
Peter Peterson First Greek American Cabinet Officer, Head of Blackstone Group
John Podesta, White House Chief of Staff under President Bill Clinton
Paul Sarbanes, U.S. Senator representing the state of Maryland
Harry Scolinos, attorney, businessman and politician
Tasia Scolinos, Justice Department Director Of Public Affairs
Olympia Snowe, Republican Senator from Maine
George Stephanopoulos, political commentator, Former White House Communications Director, Rhodes scholar, Columbia valedictorian
George Tenet, former CIA-Director
Dina Titus (1950 – ) current Minority Leader in the Nevada State Senate, United States[70]
Frances Townsend, assistant to the President and Homeland Security Advisor (Greek father)
Paul Tsongas1, former senator from Massachusetts
Gus Yatron, Former Pennsylvania Congressman and boxer
Harry Zikas, Jr., Mayor of Alpha, New Jersey


Diogenes Allen, Professor of Philosophy
Saul Amarel, Artificial Intelligence pioneer
Paul Alivisatos, nanotechnologist
Chris Argyris, distinguished lifetime contributor to theory and practice of management
Constantine A. Balanis, electrical engineer
Leda Cosmides, psychologist[95]
Michael Dertouzos, innovator & director of the M.I.T. LCS
Persi Diaconis, mathematician
Peter Diamandopoulos, former President of Adelphi University
George A. Economou, optical systems expert
Matina Souretis Horner, former President of Radcliffe College which
was affiliated with Harvard University

Paris Kanellakis1, computer scientist
Menas Kafatos, quantum physicist
Peter Liacouras, former President of Temple University
Nicholas Metropolis, physicist
Andreas Gerasimos Michalitsianos, NASA astrophysicist
Tom Maniatis, biologist
Dimitris Nanopoulos, theoretical physicist
Nicholas Negroponte, scientist, MIT Media Lab founder and director
Alexander Nehamas, professor of philosophy
Kyriacos Costa Nicolaou, chemist
Constantine Papadakis, president of Drexel University
George Papanicolaou, created the Pap Smear, and more generally, the field of cytopathology
Spiro Pappas, professor of international business, Mercer University, Atlanta, GA
John Allen Paulos, mathematician
Argyrios N. Theofilopoulos, immunologist
Tom Ypsilantis, physicist
Panayiotis Zavos, geneticist (Greek parents)




Harry “the Golden Greek” Agganis1, football and baseball player
Peter Angelos, owner of the Baltimore Orioles
Clay Bellinger, of the Baltimore Orioles
Annastasia Batikis, played in the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League in 1945
Al Campanis, MLB player and executive of the Dodgers
Jimmy Carson, NHL hockey player, (Original family surname Kyriazopoulos)
Chris Chelios, NHL hockey player
Tara Dakides, Pro Snowboarder and Champion from California
Chris Farasopoulos, football player, played for the NY Jets
Alex Grammas, MLB manager and infielder for St. Louis Cardinals, Cincinnati Reds and the Chicago Cubs.
Laird Hamilton, surfer born Laird John Zerfas, (Greek father)
Maria Kanellis, of WWE RAW, Greek father
Dean Karnazes, ultramarathon champion, writer, businessman
Mike Karakas, NHL Player for the Islanders 1935-1946
Alex Karras, NFL player, wrestler and actor
Eric Karros, Major League Baseball player for the Dodgers
Bobby Kingsbury, baseball player for Pittsburgh Pirates
Frank Klopas, soccer player for the Chicago Sting, U.S. national team and AEK Athens
Niko Koutouvides, linebacker for the Seattle Seahawks
Nick Kypreos, NHL hockey player
Alexi Lalas, soccer player
Kay Lionikas, played in the [[All-American Girls Professional (correct spelling of last name)
Kay Lionikdas, played in the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League in 1948-1950
Billy Loes, MLB Pitcher for the Dodgers and other teams
Jim Londos, Champion Wrestler during the 1930s.
Greg Louganis (Greek by adoption; ethnically Samoan and Swedish), athlete
Nick Markakis (1983 - ) outfielder who currently plays for the Baltimore Orioles[71]
Tino Martinez, retired first baseman in Major League Baseball
Aaron Miles, MLB player for the St. Louis Cardinals, Chicago White Sox, and Colorado Rockies (paternal grandmother)
Gus Niarhos, Major League Baseball Yankees, White Sox, Red Sox, Phillies
Hanshi John Pachivas, martial arts (World Martial Arts Hall of Fame)
Milt Pappas, MLB Pitcher for the Baltimore Orioles and Cincinnati Reds and other teams
June Peppas, played in the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League in 1948-1954
George Parros, NHL hockey player
Lonnie Paxton, NFL New England Patriots long-snapper 01/02/03 seasons(half Greek)
George Petrakopoulos, CEOBL basketball player for the St. Barbara Acolytes
Pete Pihos, NFL player (Pro Football Hall of Fame)
Joseph Pilates, inventor of the Pilates (Greek father)
Dawn Marie Psaltis (Dawn Marie), former WWE diva
Dusty Rhodes, MLB player for New York Giants and San Francisco Giants
Pete Sampras, tennis player (Greek parents from Sparta)
Fred Smerlas, football player for Buffalo Bills & New England Patriots
Jimmy “the Greek” Snyder1, sports commentator
Alex Spanos, owner of the San Diego Chargers
Trish Stratus,WWE Diva (Greek father)
Matt Stover, NFL player, kicker for Baltimore Ravens
Craig Titus, American bodybuilder (Greek father)
Gus Triandos , MLB player for the Baltimore Orioles and other teams
Jake Tsakalidis, NBA player for Memphis Grizzlies & Phoenix Suns
Garo Yepremian, NFL player (Greek Cypriot origin)


Ernie Anastos, WNYW-New York co-anchorman
Thalia Assuras, TV reporter
John Bolaris, WCBS-New York meteorologist
Chris Hondros, photojournalist (Greek father)
Bob Costas, NBC sportscaster (Greek father)
Mike Galanos, CNN/Sports Illustrated anchor
Paul Glastris, editor in chief of The Washington Monthly
Debbie Matenopoulos, journalist, talk show host
Bob Papa, Sports anchor and announcer

Dino Stamatopoulos, television comedy writer, actor and producer who has worked on Mr. Show, TV Funhouse, Mad TV, Moral Orel, and Late Night with Conan O’Brien.

Chloe Aridjis writer, (daughter of Greek-Mexican Homero Aridjis and American Betty Ferber de Aridjis)
A. I. Bezzerides, novelist and screenwriter
Rae Dalven1, author and academic (Romaniote – Greek Jewish)
Jeffrey Eugenides (1960 – ) novelist and short story writer[72]
Tina Fey, comedienne, head writer of Saturday Night Live (Greek mother)
Nicholas Gage, reporter for the Wall Street Journal, author Eleni
Panio Gianopoulos (1974 – ) writer and editor for Bloomsbury[73]
George Gregoriou, professor the William Paterson University, writer
Paul Kemprecos, writer/author
David Long, writer/author
Nick Mamatas, author
Anastasios Manettas, author
George Pelecanos, author
Stephanos Papadopoulos, poet, translator
David Sedaris, essayist and radio contributor
Vanessa Grigoriadis, contributing editor for New York magazine and Rolling Stone magazine
Christopher Bonanos, senior editor at New York magazine


Criss Angel, magician
Pete Athans, mountaineer
Constantino Brumidi, important artist of the Capitol (Greek Father – Italian mother)[96]
Yiorgos Caralambo, one of the eight men hired by US Army in 1856 to lead the camel driver experiment in the Southwest.
Cat Cora, Iron Chef on Food Network’s Iron Chef America
Nick “the Greek” Dandolos1, gambler
Gracia Dura Bin1, early settler, wife of Dr. Andrew Turnbull
Natalie Fotopoulos (1983 – ) dance teacher who is in the top 6 of the FOX reality show, So You Think You Can Dance[74]
Iakovos1, former Greek Orthodox Archbishop of America, Harvard professor, Selma marcher, President World Council of Churches
George Lois, advertising executive (ESPN, USA Today, Xerox, MTV, Wolfschmidt, Tommy Hilfiger), “Fizz Fizz What a Relief it Is”, “No Dancing in the (a)Isles” “Crazy People” (Big break hired by Rossides for Javits 1960)
Markos Moulitsas Zúniga, the blogger behind Daily Kos (Greek father)
Jack Pierce1, acclaimed make up artist
Valerie Solanas, attempted assassin of Andy Warhol
Paul Vallas, CEO of the Chicago Public Schools
Nick Venet, record producer
Philip Tedro, hired by US Army in 1856 to lead the camel driver experiment in the Southwest.
Prince Peter of Yugoslavia, grandson of the late Alexandra of Greece, the queen of Yugoslavia, herself daughter of Aspasia Manos
Prince Philip of Yugoslavia, grandson of the late Alexandra of Greece, the queen of Yugoslavia, herself daughter of Aspasia Manos
Prince Alexander of Yugoslavia, grandson of the late Alexandra of Greece, the queen of Yugoslavia, herself daughter of Aspasia Manos

En. Wikipedia & Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Business intelligence

September 28, 2006

By Bruno Vanasse
Many organizations are just opening their eyes to the value of business intelligence. For others, they have seen the potential, went at it, but fell short to realize it. This is a list of 10 practical tips, in my experience the most important ones, to meet the challenge of establishing an intelligence cell. It is the result of over ten years of professional experience in the implementation of intelligence cells.

1. Intelligence needs leadership from the top
The intelligence function in an organization, to have a real impact, needs full support from the CEO. The CEO must, by emphasizing its importance and by the allocation of resources, send a clear signal that intelligence is important to the survival and growth of the organization. Visibility and independence of the intelligence function is crucial. While all organizations do perform the intelligence function, for most this process is ad hoc, inefficient and haphazard. At this time, the CEO or his right arm must talk to other CEO’s or specialists who have gone through the process of establishing an intelligence function, to learn from their successes and mistakes. For those who have seen these successes and mistakes first hand, you may recognize some of the elements listed in this article.

2. Choose a champion and form a strong team.
You must choose a talented, credible and enthusiastic individual to champion the intelligence function. Depending on your type of business, this champion may be a generalist or a specialist. It is often better to hire in-house, but if no suitable candidate can be found within your walls, carefully hire a dependable and energetic individual. A good mix of people in his team would often require some expertise in the business you’re running to create useful analysis, an information professional to exploit sources and data-warehousing, and an information technology specialist to manage your network applications. Try to attract very curious, independent, mature, sociable and persuasive individuals. These may be part-time on the project, depending on your resources. Make sure they are well trained. A specialist may help you in this important task.

3. Identify your intelligence needs
You must, before doing anything else, define what you expect from the intelligence function. This will drive the whole process. Identify users, type and scope of intelligence needed. The WHO, WHAT, WHEN, WHERE, WHY and HOW must be tackled. The most important users are the organization’s decision makers. In identifying your intelligence needs, always bear that in mind. Intelligence drives decision-making, period.

4. Perform an intelligence audit
This is done to chart your intelligence and information sources, inside and outside of your organization. Know-how, know-whom and expertise must be captured to plan your intelligence collection effort and to help you focus for the next step. Also, a majority of business intelligence professionals believe that in most cases, more than fifty percent of your information and intelligence needs can be found within your organization.

5. Involve and motivate the troops
While the creation of an intelligence cell is primordial, no really useful intelligence function can be sustained in the long run if you do not mobilize your entire organization to contribute. This is where your champion and his team must animate, drive and support the thirst and exchange of knowledge and intelligence. You must promote information-seeking and sharing to fully reap the benefits of business intelligence. It can be helped, for example, by making it part of the job description, giving it support, creating incentives and rewards. You may need to give some awareness or specialised intelligence training. Emphasize its importance. Remember tip #1.

6. Remember: information is raw, intelligence is sweet
As the saying goes, too much information is like too little. What you desperately need is intelligence. Intelligence is processed information. Too many organizations gather too much information without collating, evaluating, analyzing, integrating and interpreting the information to turn it into intelligence. The mission is not to build a library, but to find pertinent information and create usable intelligence. For that, involve your experts and, if needed, branch out to academics, consultants or other types of content or process experts.

7. Intelligence is a shared commodity
Good Intelligence needs to be disseminated to the right person, in the right format, at the right time. Need I say more? Well, yes. Everybody knows: information is power. Intelligence must then be some kind of “superinformation”. This means that for information and intelligence, sharing must give more power to the individual who volunteers it, than to the one who keeps it to oneself, for your organization to create a useful intelligence function that can help you prevent disasters, lost opportunities and find new ones. This is, in some organizations, the most daunting task to achieve. You may need a professional to accomplish this. The act of information-seeking, analyzing and sharing should not be a yearly, quarterly or monthly task but a continuous process done routinely every day. Finally, you need to provide the means to disseminate and share effectively. An intranet would, in most circumstances, supply the means for this.

8. Don’t get bogged down in pricing the intelligence function
While it is important to evaluate the performance of your intelligence team and its network, for making it better and more responsive, it is an impossible task to pinpoint your ROI in the intelligence function. Can you evaluate the cost of not having it? Can you cost an unknown missed opportunity? Too often, CEO’s and directors take this dollars and cents approach that is missing the point.

9. Be open, you may not like what you hear
A good intelligence officer will sometimes challenge deep currently held beliefs. Provide immunity for him. His job is to tell you the truth, not to please you. Beware if all your hear and see does not go against your business or personal beliefs. However, your intelligence officer’s assertions must be based on thorough analysis, not guesses or hunches.

10. Last but not least – Security and ethics
The competition is often not stupid. Some may also be crooks. Your employees may, by not knowing better, negligence or mischief, give away your “secrets”. Good security will help to prevent this. Also, when implementing the intelligence system in your organization, make sure you establish and disseminate a code of ethics to guide them in their intelligence activities. Not doing this, like proper security, may bring you down.

Rich list-Greek and Turkish-

September 28, 2006  

Greece and Turkey are the two wealthiest countries in southeastern Europe. Their family fortunes are concentrated in select areas that go back for generations. In these archetypal Mediterranean nations, familial dynasties rather than individual businessmen thus ensure the transfer of power, prestige and wealth.

In 2005, the wealthiest Greeks and Turks continued to branch out into new areas of the economy and have attained considerable political clout. Moreover, each year they give large sums for charity and humanitarian and educational organizations the world over.

This article introduces the ten wealthiest Greek and Turkish dynasties (five a side), and gives a short description of their assets, history and achievements.

However, readers should note that other tycoons may have been omitted due to limited space or other factors; for example, businessmen with dual nationalities, or those who spend most or all of their time abroad, or whose financial assets may be very considerable but at the same time too difficult to calculate (such as the Greek ship owners)- all these have been excluded from the present study.

Top Five Turkish Dynasties

1.) The Sabanci Family

The Sabanci family conglomerate is a formidable force in the Turkish market. They direct Sabanci Holding, considered to rank 85th among the world’s largest family-owned businesses. The patriarch of the family, Sakip Sabanci, died in April 2004.

Sabanci Holding encompasses a diverse range of economic activities. It has interests in tourism, textiles, chemicals, banking, the automotive industry and much more. Multinationals such as Du Pont, Toyota, IBM and the Altria group have formed partnerships with Sabanci-controlled industries and have formed a large basis of today’s Turkey’s industrial production.

The family patriarch was born in 1933 in Kayseri, into a rather poor family and maintained his folksy charm throughout; according to the Guardian, he “rejoiced in being known as ‘Sakip Aga’ – which translates roughly as Squire Sakip, or the big man of the village. To reinforce the point, he often spoke with a deliberate provincial drawl, which was his way of showing the country that, despite his wealth and influence, he had not lost contact with his origins.”

Mr. Sabanci managed throughout his life to create an economic empire and at the same time to help form a new breed of Turkish industrialists, who aspire to become not merely workers but leading shapers of new technology and industry in Europe. He was also a major donor for philanthropic institutions and the creator of the Sabanci University in Istanbul, one of the top academic institutions in the region. Furthermore, his Istanbul museum on the Bosporus, dedicated to fine arts and calligraphy, has gained an international reputation.

In the societal and political sphere, Sabanci and his family are considered very influential. It must be noted that the late Turkish prime minister, Turgut Özal was a friend and a coordinator of his family’s interests, having predicted the dynamics of free-market economy and how productivity-driven entrepreneurs could lift the Turkish economy.

Facts: Sabanci Holding comprises 64 companies, 9 joint ventures and numerous real estate investments. Total revenues for 2005 are estimated at around 8.7 billion USD. They employ around 35,000 people.

Fortune: Sabanci’s family fortune is roughly estimated at 3.5 billion USD.

2.) The Koç Clan

The reigning king of Turkish businesses is Rahmi Koç. One of the most successful businessmen of his generation, Mr. Koç commands a lot of respect in the international arena for his abilities and vision where financial issues are concerned. He directs the Koç conglomerate, which is very diversified and follows a complex business structure. He too has acquired a reputation for charity and thousands of people depend on his support for various needs.

Koç’s business interests lie in the food and automotive industry, retail and supermarkets, finance, construction, defense and other. Moreover, he was for a period of time during the 1990’s the driving force behind the expansion of Turkish international economic interests in the Balkans and Eastern Mediterranean area and has promoted economic cooperation with Greek, Israeli, American and Arab investors. He is also considered a staunch supporter of Turkey’s further consolidation within the EU structures, as well as an optimist about Istanbul’s role as a key city in the Balkans. Koç also started a museum which is billed as “the first major museum in Turkey dedicated to the history of Transport, Industry and Communications.”

Facts: The Koç conglomerate has 106 companies and an undisclosed number of business partnerships, virtually all over the world. Around 65,000 employees work in them.

Fortune: The estimated family fortune is around 3.2 billion USD.

3.) The Sahenk Family

Slightly lower profile but also fabulously wealthy is the Sahenk family. Ferit Sahenk is the chairman of Dogus Holding, which is active in a variety of fields such as construction, finance, tourism, media and other sectors.

The family also owns the well known and successful Garanti Bank, in which the GE Capital Corporation bought a 25 percent stake for 1.7 billion USD last year. This particular deal was rated as an important step towards greater liberalization in the Turkish banking sector, which had been severely affected by the 2001 economic crisis, and the Sahenk family received acclaim for this achievement. Having such a large amount of readily available capital naturally means that they would most surely capture the headlines with investments, either abroad or domestic.

Compared with other Turkish tycoons, the Sahenk family is generally considered to keep a low profile, seeking little media exposure. Nevertheless, considering the amount of capital they have raised, it is more than certain that they will continue to play a very active role in the Turkish economy in the coming years.

Facts: The net worth of the Sahenk conglomerate is around 2.5 billion USD, with a turnover for 2005 of 6 billion USD. They employ about 18,000 people.

Fortune: Estimated at around 3.5 billion USD.

4.) Turgay Ciner and Family

A very shrewd businessperson with an unlimited capacity for achieving deals, mergers and opportunities, Turgay Ciner prides himself on being a self-made entrepreneur and doesn’t hide his ambition of taking on a greater role as far as business issues are concerned. His flagship company is the Park Group, which has invested capital in sectors like textiles, energy, media and mining. A lot of the production in the latter is being exported to Middle Eastern states, with the intention of expanding into the Chinese market.

Facts: Ciner employs around 14,000 people. Capital investments and revenues have not been found, but are considered to be almost as high as the previous three holdings.

Fortune: Estimated around 1.1 billion USD.

5.) Mehmet Karamehmet and Family
The Karamehmet family owns Turkcell, a mobile phone operator which is the largest in Turkey and amongst the top ten in Europe in terms of subscriber numbers. It is also listed on the NYSE. They also own the Superonline web portal, the largest in Turkey, which also serves as an e-pass for all services controlled by the Karamehmet family. Where philanthropic matters are concerned, the family gives a lot in terms of scholarships as well as in donations towards football clubs and sports in general.

Facts: Turkcell has 2,300 employees, and 27 million subscribers, with a lot of growth potential in the Central Asia market.
Fortune: Around 3.5 billion USD.

Top Five Greek Dynasties

1.) The Latsis Family

The first name on the Greek list is that of Spiros Latsis, heir of the legendary self-made tycoon John Latsis. He is a very discreet businessman, who has carefully and methodically constructed a financial empire, whilst diversifying assets from shipping – the basis of his father’s wealth – into a variety of activities.

For example, a leading Greek bank, Eurobank, was created by Latsis in 1990; its ongoing success story includes success at home as well as expansion into the Balkans and planned expansion in Poland; the bank is shooting for 100 new branches throughout the northeastern European country by 2008.

Another notable Latsis investment is the Lamda Development Group, associated with the real estate sector, which has made notable achievements in Greece and Romania. Spiros Latsis also became a large shareholder in Hellenic Petroleum when his oil refinery was merged with it.

Like the other dynasties on the list, the Latsis family is also a great benefactor, donating educational scholarships for students and large sums each year for charities. Latsis’ key characteristic is his financial savvy and a great intellectual capacity for understanding the deep underlying challenges that accompany business expansion.

Facts: Eurobank employees number around 13,500; the bank has a market capitalization of 8 billion USD in the Athens Stock Exchange.

Fortune: The Latsis family fortune is estimated at around 6 billion USD.

2.) The Vardinoyannis Family

A very well known name in Greek business circles is that of the Vardinoyannis family. Unlike the other more or less patriarchal dynasties, the Vardinoyannis clan operates as a tight-knit group of relatives controlling numerous successful companies in a variety of sectors. The most important is the Avin International group, active in the area of oil transport, possessing a fleet of tankers and offices in locations across the globe.

The family also owns Motor Oil, an oil refinery in the Athens area which is the second largest in the Balkans and has an international clientele for its finished products. Other companies include the Star TV station and Village Cinemas.

The Vardinoyannis family is very well known for its donations to charities, and has very close relations with other rich and important families in the USA and the Arabic world. Its business philosophy is characterized by a tendency to tread cautiously and to promote the interests of the companies, without bowing to ephemeral passing trends and opportunistic temptations.

Facts: Motor oil has a market capitalization of around 3 billion USD. The total number of employees in all Vardinoyannis-controlled companies is difficult to calculate precisely, but they probably are around 15,000.

Fortune: Around 2 billion USD.

3.) Socrates Kokkalis and Family

The flamboyant Socrates Kokkalis heads up one of the richest and most important business empires in the current Greek business scene. A self-made, dynamic entrepreneur involved in electronics and new technology, Kokkalis has built from scratch a large conglomerate well known for the high technology of its products.

First among them is the Intracom Group, an electronics company that built Kokkalis’ image, for better and for worse, which has achieved over the years numerous contracts in multiple countries. The Intralot entity is a group specialized in designing, producing and implementing systems for lotto and other games of chance all over the world, from Ecuador to Russia to Thailand. It is considered the third-largest group of its kind and pundits predict it will reach the top by the end of the decade.

However, Socrates Kokkalis has also been dogged by scandals and lawsuits, which he vociferously argues are nothing more than politically-motivated smear campaigns by his business campaigners, involving alleged crimes ranging from sports-fixing and lottery fraud . Kokkalis’ main related characteristic is his business acumen, combined with a driving will to succeed.

Like the others on the list, Kokkalis has attempted to increase his influence and undertake philanthropic obligations through giving scholarships to Balkan students at his Kokkalis Foundation, located at Harvard University in the US.

Facts: Intracom has around a 750 million USD annual turnover, and 50 million USD profit. It employees around 8,000 people. Intrasoft has 1,500 employees and revenues of 400 million USD.

Fortune: Around 1.5 billion USD.

4.) Nikolaos Stasinopoulos and Family

Fourth on the list of the Greek rich and powerful is Nikolaos Stasinopoulos. He is a very discreet and productive captain of industry, and one who belongs literally to the group of businessmen that developed the post-WWII Greek industrial sector.

The family’s main company is Viohalko Holding, which has interests ranging in all areas of metallurgy. Other firms include ELVAL, which produces aluminum products, ETEM, Halkor, Sidenor and Fitco. All these companies are involved in the production of copper, steel and plastic, and have made real inroads on international markets. In fact, 6 percent of Greece’s total exports come from the Stasinopoulos string of companies. Mr. Stasinopoulos has held the title of greatest Greek exporter for quite some years. His main business characteristics are caution and discretion; he eschews public display of his wealth and strives for minimal media exposure.

Facts: Some 80 companies are owned partially or in full by Stasinopoulos. Viohalco alone employs around 8,000 people. The sum of exports made by his group in 2005 was around 1.5 billion USD.

Fortune: The Stasinopoulos fortune stands at around 1.2 billion USD; however, its sheer number and diversity of interests makes it difficult to estimate.

5.) The Mytilineos Family

The final Greek entry on the list is the venerable Mytilineos family, which has dealt in metal products since the late 19th century. The family owns the Mytilineos Holding consortium, which has a strong presence in the Greek and Balkan area in the aforementioned products.

They also have large stakes in Aluminium of Greece, the largest aluminum producer in the country, and the METKA Group, which is involved in the production of material used in electrical plants and in projects in the defense sector. Moreover, they are the main stakeholders in ELVO, which manufactures light-weight vehicles, mainly for the armed forces. As a family, the Mytilinios clan has strong ambition to get more involved in the emerging Balkan markets, especially in Romania.

Facts: Around 5000 employees in all companies, and Mytilineos Holding alone projects revenues of 1.3 billion USD for 2006.

Fortune: Roughly, around 1 billion USD.

Links for further reading and research:

Additional information and sources for this article can be found on the websites of the Athens Stock Exchange, the Istanbul Stock Exchange, Fortune, Business Week, and Forbes. & Ioannis Michaletos, All Rights Reserved


September 28, 2006

Propaganda Techniques

Edward Filene helped establish the Institute of Propaganda Analysis in 1937 to educate the American public about the nature of propaganda and how to recognize propaganda techniques. Filene and his colleagues identified the seven most common “tricks of the trade” used by successful propagandists (Marlin 102-106: Propaganda Critic: Introduction). These seven techniques are called:

Name Calling

Glittering Generalities

Plain Folks
Card Stacking

Band Wagon

These techniques are designed to fool us because the appeal to our emotions rather than to our reason.The techniques identified by the Institute for Propaganda Analysis are further refined by Aaron Delwich in his website, Propaganda where he “discusses various propaganda techniques, provides contemporary examples of their use, and proposes strategies of mental self-defense.” By pointing out these techniques, we hope to join with others who have written on this topic to create awareness and encourage serious consideration of the influence of contemporary propaganda directed at us through the various media and suggest ways to guard against its influence on our lives.

Name Calling:

Propagandists use this technique to create fear and arouse prejudice by using negative words (bad names) to create an unfavorable opinion or hatred against a group, beliefs, ideas or institutions they would have us denounce. This method calls for a conclusion without examining the evidence. Name Calling is used as a substitute for arguing the merits of an idea, belief, or proposal. It is often employed using sarcasm and ridicule in political cartoons and writing. When confronted with this technique the Institute for Propaganda Analysis suggests we ask ourselves the following questions: What does the name mean? Is there a real connection between the idea and the name being used? What are the merits of the idea if I leave the name out of consideration? When examining this technique try to separate your feelings about the name and the actual idea or proposal (Propaganda Critic: Common Techniques 1).

Glittering Generalities:

Propagandists employ vague, sweeping statements (often slogans or simple catchphrases) using language associated with values and beliefs deeply held by the audience without providing supporting information or reason. They appeal to such notions as honor, glory, love of country, desire for peace, freedom, and family values. The words and phrases are vague and suggest different things to different people but the implication is always favorable. It cannot be proved true or false because it really says little or nothing at all. The Institute of Propaganda Analysis suggests a number of questions we should ask ourselves if we are confronted with this technique: What do the slogans or phrases really mean? Is there a legitimate connection between the idea being discussed and the true meaning of the slogan or phrase being used? What are the merits of the idea itself if it is separated from the slogans or phrases?


Transfer is a technique used to carry over the authority and approval of something we respect and revere to something the propagandist would have us accept. Propagandists often employ symbols (e.g., waving the flag) to stir our emotions and win our approval. The Institute for Propaganda Analysis suggests we ask ourselves these questions when confronted with this technique. What is the speaker trying to pitch? What is the meaning of the thing the propagandist is trying to impart? Is there a legitimate connection between the suggestion made by the propagandist and the person or product? Is there merit in the proposal by itself? When confronted with this technique, question the merits of the idea or proposal independently of the convictions about other persons, ideas, or proposals.

Propagandists use this technique to associate a respected person or someone with experience to endorse a product or cause by giving it their stamp of approval hoping that the intended audience will follow their example. The Institute for Propaganda Analysis suggests we ask ourselves the following question when confronted with this technique. Who is quoted in the testimonial?  Why should we regard this person as an expert or trust their testimony? Is there merit to the idea or product without the testimony? You can guard yourself against this technique by demonstrating that the person giving the testimonial is not a recognized authority, prove they have an agenda or vested interest, or show there is disagreement by other experts.

Plain Folks:

Propagandists use this approach to convince the audience that the spokesperson is from humble origins, someone they can trust and who has their interests at heart. Propagandists have the speaker use ordinary language and mannerisms to reach the audience and identify with their point of view. The Institute for Propaganda Analysis suggests we ask ourselves the following questions before deciding on any issue when confronted with this technique. Is the person credible and trustworthy when they are removed from the situation being discussed? Is the person trying to cover up anything? What are the facts of the situation? When confronted with this type of propaganda consider the ideas and proposals separately from the personality of the presenter.


Propagandists use this technique to persuade the audience to follow the crowd. This device creates the impression of widespread support. It reinforces the human desire to be on the winning side. It also plays on feelings of loneliness and isolation. Propagandists use this technique to convince people not already on the bandwagon to join in a mass movement while simultaneously reassuring that those on or partially on should stay aboard. Bandwagon propaganda has taken on a new twist. Propagandists are now trying to convince the target audience that if they don’t join in they will be left out. The implication is that if you don’t jump on the bandwagon the parade will pass you by. While this is contrary to the other method, it has the same effect: getting the audience to join in with the crowd. The Institute of Propaganda Analysis suggests we ask ourselves the following questions when confronted with this technique. What is the propagandist’s program?  What is the evidence for and against the program? Even though others are supporting it, why should I? As with most propaganda techniques, getting more information is the best defense.  When confronted with Bandwagon propaganda, consider the pros and cons before joining in.

Card Stacking:

Propagandist uses this technique to make the best case possible for his side and the worst for the opposing viewpoint by carefully using only those facts that support his or her side of the argument while attempting to lead the audience into accepting the facts as a conclusion. In other words, the propagandist stacks the cards against the truth. Card stacking is the most difficult technique to detect because it does not provide all of the information necessary for the audience to make an informed decision. The audience must decide what is missing. The Institute for Propaganda Analysis suggests we ask ourselves the following question when confronted with this technique: Are facts being distorted or omitted? What other arguments exist to support these assertions? As with any other propaganda technique, the best defense against Card Stacking is to get as much information that is possible before making a decision.

Top mobile companies-By market capitalization-

September 28, 2006

Figures in billion USD

1) China mobile – 130 billion

2) Vodaphone group- 127 billion

3) NTT DoCoMo- 73 billion

4) America Movil- 66 billion

5) AllTel- 19 billion

6) Bharti Airtel- 17,5 billion

7) SK Telecom- 17 billion

8) Rogers Communiation- 16,5 billion

9) MTS- 16 billion

10) VimpelCom- 12 billion

11) China Unicom- 11,5 billion

12) Turkcell- 11 billion

13) NII Holdings- 10 billion

14) Hutchison Telecom- 8,5 billion

15) Cosmote- 8 billion

16) Advance info Service- 7 billion

17) Maxis Comunications- 6 billion

18) KTF- 5,5 billion

19) Taiwan Mobile- 4,5 billion

20) Vivo Holdings- 4 billion

Figures are approximate(+ – 1%)

Source UBS

The top land phone companies-By market capitalization-

September 28, 2006

Figures in billion USD

1) AT&T- 121 billion

2) Versizon Communications- 100 billion

3) Telefonica- 82 billion

4) NTT- 79 billion

5) BellSouth- 75 billion

6) Deutche Telecom- 60 billion

7)Telecom Italia- 53 billion

8)France Telecom- 50 billion

9) Sprint Nextel- 50 billion

10) BT- 39 billion

11) Telstra- 34 billion

12) KPN- 29 billion

13) Telia Sonera- 28 billion

14) China Telecom- 26 billion

15) TelMex- 25 billion

16) Singapoure Telecom- 25 billion

17) Telenor- 23 billion

18) America Telecom SA- 23 billion

19) BCE- 22 billion

20) Swisscom- 20 billion

21) Telkom Indonesia- 18 billion

22) Qwest Communications- 17.5 billion

23) TELUS- 16,5 billion

24) Chunghwa- 16 billion

25) Portugal Telecom- 14 billion

26) Belgacom- 12,5 billion

27) KT- 12,5 billion

28) Telecom Austria- 12 billion

29) OTE- 11,5 billion

30) China Netcom – 11,5 billion

31) Telesp Participacoes- 11,5 billion

The figures are approximate(+ – 1%)

Source UBS


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